Found 1718 Questions for Big Data Analytics

What is concurrency control in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:51:47
Concurrency control concept comes under the Transaction in database management system (DBMS). It is a procedure in DBMS which helps us for the management of two simultaneous processes to execute without conflicts between each other, these conflicts occur in multi user systems.Concurrency can simply be said to be executing multiple transactions at a time. It is required to increase time efficiency. If many transactions try to access the same data, then inconsistency arises. Concurrency control required to maintain consistency data.For example, if we take ATM machines and do not use concurrency, multiple persons cannot draw money at a time in ... Read More

Explain about conflict serializability in DBMS

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:50:27
Conflict serializability orders any conflicting operations in the same way as some serial execution. A pair of operations is said to conflict if they operate on the same data item and one of them is a write operation.That meansReadi(x) readj(x) - non conflict   read-read operationReadi(x) writej(x) - conflict         read-write operation.Writei(x) readj(x) - conflic      t write-read operation.Writei(x) writej(x) - conflict      write-write operation.Where I and j denote two different transactions Ti and Tj.Precedence graphIt is used to check conflict serializability.The steps to check conflict serializability are as follows −For each transaction T, put ... Read More

What is the term serializability in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:49:23
A schedule is serialized if it is equivalent to a serial schedule. A concurrent schedule must ensure it is the same as if executed serially means one after another. It refers to the sequence of actions such as read, write, abort, commit are performed in a serial manner.ExampleLet’s take two transactions T1 and T2, If both transactions are performed without interfering each other then it is called as serial schedule, it can be represented as follows −T1T2READ1(A)WRITE1(A)READ1(B)C1READ2(B)WRITE2(B)READ2(B)C2Non serial schedule − When a transaction is overlapped between the transaction T1 and T2.ExampleConsider the following example −T1T2READ1(A)WRITE1(A)READ2(B)WRITE2(B)READ1(B)WRITE1(B)READ1(B)Types of serializabilityThere are two types ... Read More

What do you mean by schedule in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:48:36
A transaction must satisfy the ACID properties of DBMS, namelyAtomicity − Execute all or none transaction.Consistency − The DB should be consistent before and after transaction execution.Isolation − Transaction must be executed in isolated form.Durability − Roll backing should always be possible in Case of any failure.A schedule is defined as an execution sequence of transactions. A schedule maintains the order of the operation in each individual transaction. A schedule is the arrangement of transaction operations. A schedule may contain a set of transactions.We already know that a transaction is a set of operations. To run transactions concurrently, we arrange ... Read More

Explain the binary operations in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:50:21
Query is a question or requesting information. Query language is a language which is used to retrieve information from a database.Query language is divided into two types −Procedural languageNon-procedural languageProcedural languageInformation is retrieved from the database by specifying the sequence of operations to be performed.For Example − Relational algebra.Structure Query language (SQL) is based on relational algebra.Relational algebra consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as an input and produces a new relation as output.Types of Relational Algebra operationsThe different types of relational algebra operations are as follows −Select operationProject operationRename operationUnion operationIntersection operationDifference operationCartesian ... Read More

Explain about concurrent transactions in DBMS

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:47:29
A transaction is a unit of database processing which contains a set of operations. For example, deposit of money, balance enquiry, reservation of tickets etc.Every transaction starts with delimiters begin transaction and terminates with end transaction delimiters. The set of operations within these two delimiters constitute one transaction.main() {    begin transaction } end transactionThere are three possible ways in which a transaction can be executed. These are as follows −Serial execution.Parallel execution.Concurrent execution.Concurrent transaction or execution includes multiple transactions which are executed concurrently or simultaneously in the system.AdvantagesThe advantages of the concurrent transactions are as follows −Increases throughput which ... Read More

What are the different ways the transaction can be executed(DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:45:30
There are three possible ways in which a transaction can be executed. These are as follows −Serial execution − In serial execution, the second transaction can begin its execution only after the first transaction has completed. This is possible on a uniprocessor system.Parallel execution − In parallel execution, two transactions can start their execution exactly at the same instant of time. For this, we require more than one processor.Concurrent execution − In concurrent execution, execution of the second process can begin even before the process has completed its execution.Let us consider two transactions T1 and T2. In concurrent execution, the ... Read More

Explain the unary operations of algebra relations in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:48:59
Query is a question or requesting information. Query language is a language which is used to retrieve information from a database.Query language is divided into two types −Procedural languageNon-procedural languageProcedural languageInformation is retrieved from the database by specifying the sequence of operations to be performed.For Example − Relational algebra.Structure Query language (SQL) is based on relational algebra.Relational algebra consists of a set of operations that take one or two relations as an input and produces a new relation as output.Types of Relational Algebra operationsThe different types of relational algebra operations are as follows −Select operationProject operationRename operationUnion operationIntersection operationDifference operationCartesian ... Read More

Write queries using aggregate functions in relational algebra (DBMS)?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 15:47:50
The aggregate functions are follows −max()min()sum()average()count()Consider the following tables −Employee − Emp(empid, ename, salary)EmpidEmpnameSalaryE1Ravi4000E2Sanjay3500E3Sruthi3000E4Alok3000E5Pritam3000Dept − Dept(deptid, dname)DepidDnameD1CseD2EceD3CivilProject − Project(projected, pname)ProjectidPnameP1DatabaseP2networkingWorksin − Worksin(empid, depid)EmpidDepidE1P1E2P2E3P1E4P2E5P2Assign − Assign(empid, projectid)EmpidProjectidE1P1E2P2E3P1E4P2E5P2Example 1Display the details of the employee who works in the ece department.Step 1Use the below mentioned syntax. Here, T1= deptid of EceT1=∏deptid(σdname=ece(dept))OutputDeptidD2Step 2Here, ⋈= {T1.deptid=worksin.deptid} and T2= all empid of EceT2= ∏empid(T1⋈worksin)OutputEmpidE3E4Step 3Here, T3=(T2⋈emp), ⋈={T2.empid=emp.empid} and T3= details of all employees of EceEmpidEmpnameSalaryE3Smruthi3000E4Alok3000Example 2Display all names of employees who work on database projects.Step 1Use the command mentioned below −T1=∏projectid(σpname=database(project))OutputProjectidP1Step 2Use the command given below −T2= ∏empid(T1⋈assign)OutputEmpidE1E2Step 3Use the command given below −T3= ∏empname(T2⋈emp)OutputEmpnameRaviSmrutiRead More

What are the states of transaction in DBMS?

Bhanu Priya
Updated on 06-Jul-2021 14:43:28
A transaction is a unit of database processing which contains a set of operations. For example, deposit of money, balance enquiry, reservation of tickets etc.Every transaction starts with delimiters begin transaction and terminates with end transaction delimiters. The set of operations within these two delimiters constitute one transaction.main() {    begin transaction } end transactionA transaction is divided into states to handle various situations such as failure. It passes through various states during its lifetime. The state of a transaction is defined by the current activity it is performing.At a particular instant of time, a transaction can be in one ... Read More
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