What is the hedge ratio? Explain its advantages and disadvantages.

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 15:10:59
Hedge ratio is a ratio of value of hedge position to the value of total exposure. Value of hedge position is the total amount invested by investors in hedged position and value of total exposure is total amount invested by investor in underlying assets.Hedge ratio also can be a comparative ... Read More

What is hedge accounting?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 15:08:10
In this method, companies are allowed to recognize their gains and losses on hedging instruments against exposure of derivative instruments to reduce income volatility, if both are accounted separately.The main purpose of hedge accounting is to match the derivative gain/loss with underlying investment gain/loss. Its main advantage is that it ... Read More

What is the concept of hedging?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 15:05:24
Hedging is designed to protect the share value from market volatility. In simple words, it acts like an insurance coverage which protects you from any potential loss.The main purpose of hedging is to minimise/eliminate risk by offsetting the potential losses. Investors follow this to safeguard their investments from losses due ... Read More

What are the differences between Indian GAAP and US GAAP?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 15:03:54
The major differences between Indian GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) and US GAAP (United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) are as follows −Indian GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Principles)Financial statements are prepared in accordance with the principle of conservatism.Financial statements are prepared with presentation requirements of schedule VI of companies ACT, ... Read More

How to calculate the accounting entries for forward contracts?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 15:00:09
ProblemABC Company entered into a forward contract to buy its own shares.Details for the same are given below and here, XXXX refers to the respective year.Contract date − 1st Jan XXXXMaturity date − 31st Dec XXXXExercise price of $110No of shares − 1500Market price − $100 (as on 1st Jan XXXX)Market ... Read More

How to Write accounting for forward contracts?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 14:53:25
The accounting for forward contracts is written as follows −Here, XXXX and XXX refer to the respective amount.RecognizeSince the agreement is for a future date, it should be accounted for now (date of signed, date of which physical exchange).CreditDebitAsset obligationXXXXAsset ReceivableXXXXRecording (seller perspective)Asset obligation credited for spot rate and asset ... Read More

How to prepare a job sheet for the given transactions?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 14:24:54
ProblemPrepare a job sheet using the transactions given below −Amount ($)Raw materials750000Work in progress (job A)310000Utility costs50000Direct labour costs125000Advertising expenses310000Indirect labour costs202000Travel expenses40000Raw materials675000Insurance15000Work in progress (Job B)295000Finished goods1089700Direct labour costs98000Cost of goods sold963000Indirect labour costs103000Sales2058000Manufacturing overheads1158009564500Administrative expenses105000Carrying balancesSales commissions195000Raw materials30000Manufacturing overheads220000Work-in-progress88000Depreciation (equipment)45000Cost of goods sold28000146000SolutionThe job sheet for the ... Read More

What is the job costing and its characteristics?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 14:19:43
Job costing is the basic job costing method used to determine the cost of a specific job, performed according to the customer requirement. This is the type where work is done by contracts or separate projects.This type of costing is useful for the firms producing not identical products. Manufacturing firms ... Read More

What are the various types of contracts?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 14:09:10
Contracts are divided as follows −validity/enforceabilityformationperformanceSub classification of contracts is given below −Based onValidity/enforceability Formation PerformanceValid contractsExpress contractExecute contractVoid contractsImplied contractExecutor contractVoidable contractsQuasi-contracIllegal agreementsUnenforceable contractsE.com. contractsunilateral contractbilateral contractNow, let us understand the types of contracts in detail.Validity/enforceabilityValid contract − It is an agreement, which is binding and enforceable.Void contract − It is ... Read More

What is the word OFFER and its rules?

Nagasravan Tamma
Published on 17-May-2022 14:18:00
An offer is a kind of promise between the parties, which depends on a certain act/forbearance given. In other words, an offer is an invitation to enter into a contract with certain terms.According to the Section 2 (a) of Indian Contract Act, “An offer is defined as, when one person ... Read More
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