Quark

PhysicsNuclear physics

Introduction

In terms of physics, any particle is the combination of three different units such as an electron, proton as well as neutron. A combination of multiple quarks is called hadrons and it is also the combination of protons as well as neutrons. These two particles are known as the constituents as well as components in terms of the atomic nucleus. Simply, quark is referred to as the simplest form of a date which is the elementary particles for making up the total matter that is surrounding Quark. Quark stands for q

What is Quark?


Figure 1: Quark

Quark can be defined as the most fundamental mental part that is present inside a particle. Therefore, quarks are not referred to as the independent existence within particles such as protons or electrons. George Zweig and Murray Gell-Mann theorize it in 1964. Protons refer to a stable hardon, which includes a single down quark as well as double up quarks.

Moreover, neutrons comprise a single down quark and the process of the standard theoretical concepts is very helpful for explaining the presence of other different elementary objects along with different unobserved objects. Antiquark refers to the antiparticles of quarks that are similar to the quarks in the context of a lifetime as well as spin (Brod, Gorbahn & Stamou, 2020). Therefore, the actual difference is in the concerning charges from the quark.

Different types of Quark

There are six different types of quark that can be classified and all the category of quark is applicable for the different purpose along with different symbol, ranges as well as electronic charges.

  • Up Quark − It refers to the lightest quark of all with maximum stability because of the lowest mass. U denotes the symbol of this quark. The mass range of this type of quark varies from $\mathrm{1.7\:-3.1\:MeV\:/\:c^2}$ (Bombaci et al. 2021). The electric charges of this type of quark are $\mathrm{-1/3\:e}$

  • Down Quark − his type of quark comes after the up quark in terms of light and it has aslo higher stability. D denotes the symbol of this quark. The mass range of this type of quark varies from $\mathrm{4.1 - 5.7 \: MeV\:/\:c^2}$. The electric charges of this type of quark are $\mathrm{-1/3\:e}$.

  • Strange Quark − It is considered the third lightest quark of all types of quarks. S denotes the symbol of this quark. . The electric charges of this type of quark are $\mathrm{+2/3\:e}$.

  • Charm Quark − The meson that is referred to as a J/Psi particle is the perfect example of this type of quark. C (Dong & Greco, 2019) denotes the symbol of this quark. The electric charges of this type of quark are $\mathrm{+2/3\:e}$.

  • Top Quark − T denotes the symbol of this quark. The mass range of this type of quark varies from $\mathrm{172.9\:+1.5\:GeV\:/c^2}$. The electric charges of this type of quark are $\mathrm{+2/3\:e}$.

  • Bottom Quark − B denotes the symbol of this quark. The mass range of this type of quark is $\mathrm{4.1\:GeV\:/c^2}$. The electric charges of this type of quark are $\mathrm{-1/3\:e}$.

Different particles of Quark


Figure 2: Composition of a quark

The building matter block of the quark is mainly made up of two different types of fundamental objects quark as well as leptons.

These two types of components have aslo six different types of classification so all over 12 types of compositions are included in the making of a quark. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory discovered the quark of the particle. The baryon number of this particle is $\mathrm{\frac{1}{2}}$ and the spin rate is $\mathrm{\frac{1}{3}}$.

It is generally interacted with the gravitational force and electromagnetism. Quarks can be weak or strong and the electric charges differ from $\mathrm{\frac{1}{3}\:e}$ to $\mathrm{+\frac{2}{3}\:e}$.

Properties of Quark


Figure 3: Properties of a quark

In the composition of quarks the electric charges is is not in an integer. The electric charges of the top quarks are equivalent to $\mathrm{2/3\:e}$ which refers to a positive fractional change while the electric charge of other different quarks is equivalent to $\mathrm{1/3\:e}$ which stands for negative fractional change (Albrecht et al. 2021).

Quarks are very tiny particles in size and it is impossible the measurement them as well as to detect their actual size. It is considered that the range of a quark’s size can be defined as $\mathrm{10^{-19}}$ meters.

Conclusion

The range of mass of a quark is entirely dependent on the mass of the neighbouring fluids that comprise gluons. The weight of the up quark is around $\mathrm{2\:to\:8\:MeV/C^2\:}$ while the top quark’s weight is nearly $\mathrm{170}$ to $\mathrm{180 \times 10^3}$. The mass unit is measured in terms of $\mathrm{MeV/C^2}$ and $\mathrm{Mev}$ refers to the quark’s energy that is present in the mega-electron while V stands for the velocity of the particles. As per the quantum chromodynamics, three different colours are commonly seen in terms of quarks those are red and blue and green. The antiquarks also have the same colour combination like antired, antiblue and antigreen. Gluons have also two different colours red as well as blue. The spin rate of a quark is $\mathrm{\frac{1}{2}}$ and it contributes to the spin of protons not more than 30%.

FAQs

Q1. Which quarks are stable and unstable?

Among the six different types of quarks, only two types of quarks are stable those are up and down quarks while the remaining categories of quarks are unstable. These unstable quarks are dependent on the interactive forces as they are vey was for holding too much time.

Q2. What are the other types of particles inside a proton?

On the side proton hadrons and baryons are included. Besides this, a proton also includes mesons as well as gluons.

Q3. What are the three pairs of quarks?

The pairs of quarks are up and down and charm and strange. Top and bottom are also a pair of quarks.

Q4. What are the components of quarks?

The components of quark are the electric charge, range of mass, size, and colour-changing factors. The spin rates as well as weak interaction also also the components of quarks.

raja
Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47
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