Pregnancy Parturition Lactation


The procedure of giving birth to a baby as well as the placenta from uterus through vagina is known as parturition. This phase is mainly seen between the labour to the process of delivery. Parturition takes place around 38 weeks after completing fertilization. During this process, the lactation process starts.

What are Parturition and Lactation?

After gestation, the procedure is completed with the help of an embryo that takes more than 270 days for the procedure of baby birth. At the time of giving birth to a newborn baby, there are some contractions that are powerful in the muscles of uterus and then the baby comes out head first.

After the delivery process, the vessels of blood in the umbilical cord starts to shrink. These vessels are tied in a knot-like tube and it is cut after the baby has come out. After some time, the placenta generally brakes from uterus and it is then expelled. After a while, the uterus generally regained its standard shape and size.

Medications in Parturition

During the time of pregnancy, the woman's body is passing through a complex medication process. Different drugs are injected during this time. In order to reduce the pain of the delivery processes, psychoprophylaxis is practised along with regional nerve blockers being applied to the body of a mother.

Drug system

In the pregnancy period, most common drugs are morphine as well as meperidine which are very useful for relieving pain during labour. These drugs have some side effects as well like vomiting tendency along with nausea. Beside these, some mothers are also suffering from continuous drowsiness, hypotension as well as respiratory depression with the application of these drugs. Butorphanol refers to another significant drug which is mainly prescribed by doctors for less neonatal depression.


It is another drug, which is mainly prescribed for reducing the pain during labour and it is applied during the stage of parturition. The side effects of this drug are respiratory depression along with continuous drowsiness.

Regional Anaesthesia

This process is mainly applied during the labour time for mitigating the excessive labour pain because after applying regional anaesthesia to a mother’s body the nerve of that part of the body stops sending impulses. This action is limited for short period. It only stops the impulses sent to a limited area of the body but the other parts remain alert. It has no such side effects on the body of mothers as well as the newborn baby.

Stages of Parturition

The total process parturition is completed during three different stages which have a great role in the baby's birth procedure.

Figure 2:Stages of Parturition


This process is mainly defined as the initial enlargement process of uterus along with the rupture process of different membranes. It begins with the discharge of blood and begins with the 3 cm dilatation of the cervix. In this stage, the cervix is mainly connected to the uterus from the lower part.


It is the second state of the parturition process which starts after the dilation stage. It appears as one of the important stages that begin after the dilation stage. This stage last until the birth of a baby. This procedure commences when the size of the uterus is increased with the pressure of the cervix. At the initial stage, the upper portion is totally engaged in the pelvis. The baby’s head started to descend in the pelvis and under the arch of the pubic area. Thereafter, it finally comes out of vagina.


It is the final stage of this process and it begins after the baby's birth and completes with the placenta delivery. The standard duration of the delivery procedure is 10 to 12 minutes and it is mostly managed after providing an uterotonic, such as oxytocin.


It is the process of milk production during the pregnancy period. The procedure of milking process mainly takes place in the mammary glands after the completion of the pregnancy period. At the initial stage, a particular gland is mainly involved in the production of milk namely the colostrum. This milk is very important for the infant who is newly born because it provides lots of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals to improve the immunity power from the initial stage.


Pudendal block is considered the most common procedure which numbs the perineum and the canal of birth for the spontaneous process of delivery. It is also connected to vacuum extraction as well as forceps delivery. This particular technique is very effective for reducing pain during the delivery process.


Q1.What is colostrum?

Ans. The initial milk that mainly comes after the birth of a baby for 2 or three days is known as colostrum. It mainly contains different types of antibodies that provide a great immunity power to a newborn baby. This breast milk also provides several nutrients to the body of a baby.

Q2. What is the composition of breast milk?

Ans. The breast milk of the human body contains some droplets of plants, casein which is a type of milk protein as well as lactose. Besides this, some mineral salts like sodium, calcium as well as potassium along with some vitamins are also included in the composition of milk

Q3. What is the impact of hormones in the process of lactation?

Ans. Secretion and the milk storage procedure mainly occur under the influence of prolactin, a significant hormone that is secreted during pregnancy. Oxytocin is another important hormone which mainly stimulates the milk ejection procedure.