Physical Properties of Haloalkanes


Haloalkane is mainly responsible for the depletion of ozone layer. These particular halogen compounds have several applications for different purposes like in the treatment of malaria and it is used in the time of surgery.

What are Haloalkanes?

Haloalkanes refer to the hydrocarbons that comprise one as well as more atoms of hydrogen that are mainly replaced with the atom of halogen. Haloarenes are another type of hydrocarbon and the main differences between these two hydrocarbons are haloalkanes mainly derived from open-chain hydrocarbons while other hydrocarbons are derived from aromatic hydrocarbons.

Haloalkanes: Physical Properties

The physical properties of this chemical agent are mostly like the other covalent particles. It is very reactive with the functional group. The atomic mass of this chemical compound is mostly different from the other types of chemical elements.

Figure 1: Different melting points of Haloalkanes

Melting Point

This point is generally higher than the other types of alkanes and in the case of the atomic number of carbon is similar in both haloalkanes. Fluoroalkanes are the exception as their melting point is lower than other types of alkynes. For example, this point of methane is -182.5°C while tetrafluoromethane is -183.6°C. This chemical element is mostly colourless as well as the odourless element. The melting points of this chemical compound are different and that is why the melting point is also different.

Boiling Point

Haloalkanes have a higher boiling point than other types of alkanes because of their atom of carbon. For example, 1-Bromo-2-chloroethane takes more heat to boil than chloroethane and it is fully dependent on the atomic weight of alkanehalides. Because of the lower heat consumption, fluoroalkanes take lower heat for boiling. The boiling points of different haloarenes are different and the sequence is Iodoarene > Bromoarene > Chloroarene.

Figure 2: Haloalkanes


The density of this chemical element is generally higher and it is directly proportion” with the compound mass and that is why the density gradually decreases in the lower series of homologous. The density of this chemical element is increased because of the increment of the mass. The density of fluoro derivatives is lower than the chloro-derivatives. Hence, chloro-derivatives are less dense compared to bromo-derivatives.


This chemical element is hardly soluble in water because it has a larger amount of relative energy as per requirement. The relative energy is needed for breaking down the chemical bond between two different particles carbon and halogen. A little amount of energy is released during the formation of this bond. It mainly happens after the dissolution of different ions as well as water.


The power of reactivity of this particular chemical element is dependent on the adjacent alkenes. The reactive power mainly increases with the increment of atomic mass weight of the halogens. The nature of Haloalkanes is polarized and that is why it acts like a solvent. Many chemical reactions prove that this chemical element has better power of solvents compared to alkenes.

Haloalkanes: Chemical properties

The chemical features of this chemical agent are as follows −

  • Carbon is attached to the halogen and it is deficient in electrons. That is why haloalkanes have power that is more reactive the nucleophiles. The reaction of tert-butyl bromide and hydroxide can be presented as

$$\mathrm{(CH_3)_3CBr + OH^-\:\rightarrow\:(CH_3)_3COH + Br^-}$$

Figure 3: Organic bond of Haloalkanes

Fvasconcellos 20:09, 8 January 2008 (UTC). Original image by DrBob contribs)., IUPAC-haloalkane, CC BY-SA 3.0

Haloalkanes display different types of radical reactions that are free and the Grignard formation mainly takes place with the help of haloalkanes and magnesium (Mg). The mechanism of this reaction can be denoted as −

$$\mathrm{R−X + Mg\:\rightarrow\:R−X^{•−} + Mg^{•+}}$$

that is transferred to

$$\mathrm{R−X^{•−}\:\rightarrow\:R^• + X^−}$$

After that, the equation changes to −

$$\mathrm{R^• + Mg^{•+}\:\rightarrow\:RMg^+}$$

and finally the reaction changes to −

$$\mathrm{RMg^+ + X^−\:\rightarrow\:RMgX.}$$

The formula, R refers to the group of alkyl, X stands for halogen and RMgX denotes the reagent of Grignard.

  • The substitution reaction is generally seen in this chemical element and the reaction is mainly presented as −

$$\mathrm{CH^3Cl + OH^- \:\rightarrow\:CH3OH + Cl^-}$$

  • These chemicals mainly undergo the reaction of reactions and the chemical reaction mainly denoted as

$$\mathrm{C_2H_5Br + NaOH\:\rightarrow\:H_2C=CH_2 + NaBr + H_2O}$$

Applications of Haloalkanes

The applications of this chemical element are seen in different purposes and in different sectors.

  • It mostly applies like a retardant of the frame.

  • This chemical element is also used as fire extinguishers well as refrigerants.

  • Another application of this chemical particle is in propellants as well as solvents.

  • In the field of pharmaceuticals, it is mostly used. It is mainly used as the non-polar compounds”


The physical properties of a particular chemical compound are such properties that are closely related to the physical aspects of any compound. The size, shape colour, as well as mass, are included in this type of property. The nature of this chemical agent is hydrophobic. It is flammable but not more than alkanes because the CH bond of this particle is fewer than alkanes.


Q1. What are the different types of boiling points of haloalkanes?

Ans. Methylpropane boils at the temperature of -11.7°C while 2-fluoropropane requires -10°C. Because of the increment of this heat consumption, the “boiling point” of isomeric reduces. For example, 1-bromobutane boils at the temperature of 375K whereas 2-bromopropane boils at the temperature of 346K.

Q2. What is the different density value of haloalkanes?

Ans. There are several density values of different types of haloalkanes such as the density value of $\mathrm{CH_2Cl_{2}}$ is 1.336 g/mL and the density value of $\mathrm{n-C_3H_7Br}$ is 1.335 g/mL. The density of $\mathrm{CCl_4}$ is 1.595 g/mL.

Q3. What are haloarenes?

Ans. Haloarenes are mainly formed with the replacement of atoms of hydrogen in terms of an Aromatic hydrocarbon. Examples of haloarenes are Chlorine, Iodine, and Bromin.

Updated on: 25-Apr-2023


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