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Peace Studies and Peace Politics: Multicultural Common Security in North-South Conflict Situations
The media portrays all foreigners as a potential threat to the citizens of a particular country, let us say Japan. Because of this, the citizens of Japan are unable to comprehend the extent of the migrants' feelings of insecurity, which they live with every day, as they encounter mistrust from neighbours and the police at their homes, places of employment, and educational institutions. The prevailing view in civil society that migrant workers pose a threat to that society's security exacerbates the migrants' sense of fear, which leads to a "security dilemma." The more sceptical the citizens are, the more uneasy the migrants feel, and the less they are willing to open their hearts to them.
Peace Studies and Peace Politics
Peace Studies and Politics is an interdisciplinary area focusing on the theoretical and practical study of peace, conflict, and security. To examine the underlying causes of conflict and violence and to find and advance solutions for peacebuilding and conflict resolution, the area draws on various disciplines, including sociology, political science, international relations, psychology, and others.
What is the North-South Conflict Situation?
There are many ways in which the world we live in is divided. Different countries and continents are geographically separated from one another. Each nation, race, language, culture, and ideology is unique. Nevertheless, the enormous disparity between the rich and the poor is a significant source of conflict. Beyond all other divisions, economic differences occupy a special place in the international sphere.
The modern global human society comprises several wealthy nations in the north and numerous underdeveloped nations in the south. Most southern state residents are exploited and underprivileged. Only a tiny percentage can afford essentials, and most are in poor health. The economies and practical strength of the countries in the south are weaker than those in the north. Because of this, they are compelled to surrender to the authority of the solid northern nations in all political, technological, and military concerns.
The Brandt line was developed in the 1980s to represent the north-south division. The Brandt line, a 1980s classification, divided the globe into prosperous north and destitute south based on per capita income.
The line encircles the planet at around latitude 300 N, going between North and Central America, the northern portion of Africa and the middle east, rising\snorth across China and Mongolia but dipping south, encompassing Australia and New Zealand in the " North". "Global South" refers to nations in tropical and subtropical habitats. The "Global North," on the other hand, includes the temperate and Arctic climate zones. In the World Wide Web (www) and artificial intelligence period, the South had limited access to these technologies. However, this disparity has gradually narrowed, and few Asian countries now have equal access to technology and the internet.
Regarding resources, scientists, and research papers, industrialised nations, or the "North," dominate the worldwide scientific community. Indeed, it has been stated that industrialised nations account for around 94% of all indexed scientific papers. In "Global North," the "number of scientists or engineers per million population" is 2800. In contrast, the "number of scientists or engineers per million inhabitants" in the "Global South" is 200. The "Global South" requires fundamental environmental and social data, change monitoring, evaluations, and a more detailed study of human and social systems.
Furthermore, developing nations contribute less to the scientific understanding of global environmental challenges than industrialised countries. The scientific community in developing nations contributes less because of "different research agendas," "unequal research capabilities," and research focusing on local environmental challenges. It is also noticed that the "North" sets the agenda for research. Therefore environmental issues and concerns of regional relevance are overlooked or do not get worldwide attention.
Dependency Theory and North-South Conflict Situation
Dependency theory contends that the current state of developing countries cannot be understood apart from the history of external penetrations and interventions, which have been structured and, in turn, have been impacted by internal features and developments. This is in contrast to the modernization paradigm, whose focus is typically reduced to analyzing individual societies and states of the South. The dependence paradigm's main argument is that the South's underdevelopment results from the North's oppression and exploitation.
The forms and mechanisms of this exploitation can be observed in a variety of fields: some examine how international trade affects the development of the South; others concentrate on how multinational corporations exploit vital resources; still, others focus on the financial relationships that have resulted in the South's high and steadily increasing debt burden. The emphasis on the detailed history of colonialism that separates the nations of the North from the nations of the South is another characteristic of dependence theory.
Dependency theory calls for a delinking from Northern-based institutions and the implementation of a self-centred development strategy that focuses on the needs and demands of the domestic population, presuming that the unequal relationships and exchanges between North and South cause global polarization and increased poverty within the South.
Multiculturalism and Human Security
After the Cold War ended, human security and multiculturalism both gained popularity. Multiculturalism is the peaceful coexistence of many cultural groups in a nation. On the other hand, the human security approach refers to how the realist paradigm, prevalent during the Cold War, was transformed into human-centred security studies. It has been established that these two strategies have a global impact. In this sense, the 20th and 21st centuries' modern "state of nature" can be understood through the debate about securitization, war, and economic issues.
In an ideal multicultural society, it is considered that all people and groups enjoy the same rights, such as the ability to vote in elections. The likelihood of conflict (economic, political, or armed) increases when communities do not coexist peacefully and fairly. As a result, there is a risk that the social capacity will be depleted by internal conflicts, resulting in divisions rather than an overall improvement. In other words, the benefits of maintaining fragmentation will outweigh the advancement possible with particular collections of components because the resources spent to do so will benefit the entire population.
How to achieve Multicultural Common Security?
Following are the techniques and steps to achieve multicultural common security −
Cultural Exchange Programs
Through these programs, people from many cultures can get more familiar with one another's customs, values, and religious beliefs. Cultural exchange programs can ease tensions and promote cooperation by constructing bridges of respect and understanding.
Intercultural dialogue entails courteous and open communication between individuals from various cultures, enabling them to share ideas and discover points of commonality. This communication is crucial in North-South conflicts since cultural differences frequently cause conflict.
Common Security Policies
These regulations ought to be founded on the idea of respect for one another and ought to take into should consider what exists among other countries. These strategies can aid in easing tensions and averting confrontations along the North-South divide by encouraging collaboration and understanding.
Suppose we want to end the North-South conflicts that are starting to arise in today's neo-liberal global society. In that case, we must create a new awareness among the civil societies of the North about the necessity of trying to break with the past and forging new relationships with the migrant workers who represent the global South, mainly the "illegal" migrants and the victims of human trafficking.
Knowledge and awareness of North-South interactions on a global scale are essential for recognizing the necessity of establishing common security with them. Without a thorough understanding of the nature and structure of globalized colonialism, the military-police complex, and global fascism, it will be challenging to get past the prejudices fostered by the educational system and propagated by the media and enable the "decent" citizens to empathize with the minorities, especially with "illegal" migrants.
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