Peace Agreements since the Cold War

In most cases, procedures leading to peace do not go in a straight line. The six basic types of peace accords may be categorized by the goals they set out to accomplish. During a political settlement, each of the following elements of agreements might emerge. Prenegotiation, cessation of hostilities, partial, complete, renewing, as well as execution are the six types of accords initially recognized by Bell.

Characteristics of the Post-Cold War Era

As a result, the dominance of free market capitalism is the first hallmark of the post-Cold War era. Since then, it has been recognized as a powerful instrument, technique, and means of achieving economic progress. Most nations that accepted communism or socialism to attain economic prosperity have now embraced capitalism philosophy.

  • The triumph of capitalism based on free markets is the first hallmark of the post-Cold War era. Since then, it has gained recognition as an effective strategy, instrument, and way of achieving economic growth. The majority of the nations that embraced communism or socialism in order to attain economic progress have now embraced capitalism philosophy.

  • The emergence of the "third wave" of democracy, to use Samuel Huntington's phrase, was the second hallmark of the post-Cold War era. South East Asia, North Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Latin America all experienced liberal democracy in its most basic form. Pink, blue, and other "colour" revolutions occurred in East European nations. 'Arab spring' erupted in the West Asian area a few years later, in 2010.

  • The fast expansion of global trade is the third hallmark of the post-Cold War era. An international trading regime based on rules was established with the creation of the WTO. The countries' ability to establish economic ties and become interdependent was made possible by the growth in global commerce. This quick shift away from conventional relations that prioritized government interactions has allowed commercial exchanges between private parties.

  • The emergence of new players, primarily non-state actors, is the fourth significant feature of the post-Cold War era. These non-state actors lack nationality and a sense of state identity and are not under state authority. Amnesty International and Greenpeace, two international nonprofit organizations, were founded to advocate for specific causes like preserving human rights and the environment. These non-state players' rise led to several new connections between states and non-state actors.

  • The shift in attention from global to regional concerns is the fifth feature of the post-Cold War era. These interests spanned from concerns about the environment to those related to migration. These tendencies are widespread and have a significant influence on human civilization. Identification, comprehension, and group attempt to solve the problems have been elevated to priority areas in state operations. The COVID-19 pandemic, for example, necessitates extensive joint effort at the regional and global levels. It even necessitates the establishment of regional structures to counter these new, non-traditional security threats.

The discourse on international relations in the post-Cold War era has altered due to all these aspects. International relations have become more unstable and unpredictable due to the conclusion of the Cold War, combined with fundamental structural changes. Additionally, time is distinguished by the intensification and dynamism of interstate ties.

Peace Agreements

These are −

START Agreement

The U.S. and the Soviet Union signed the Strategic Armaments Reduction Treaty, a bilateral agreement to restrict and reduce their strategic offensive arms. The pact was ratified in 1994 after being signed on July 31, 1991. The treaty's participants were restricted from fielding over 1,500 intercontinental ballistic bombers and 5,000 nuclear weapons. The complete execution of START, which occurred in late 2000, led to the elimination of almost 70% of all strategic nuclear weapons at that time. It was the most extensive and most complicated arms control deal ever negotiated. Ronald Reagan presented it as the Reagan Nuclear Agreement, but it was dubbed START I once discussions for START II started.

As a result of the pre-Gorbachev Soviet leadership's intransigence on some U.S. agreement criteria, the START project was repeatedly delayed from its 1982 launch date until it was finally finalized in 1994. The Soviet Union refrained from defining a timeframe for future discussions when Reagan introduced the Global Security Initiative program in 1983, seeing it as a threat. A proposal for a four-negotiating approach, including middle troops, strategic defence, and missile systems, was discussed between U.S. State Department Secretary George Shultz and Soviet Foreign Affairs minister Andrei Gromyko in 1985. After the Advanced Nuclear Forces Treaty was signed in 1987, discussions toward this execution of the START Program were expedited at the Reykjavik Summit in 1986 and oriented toward eliminating ballistic missiles.


During his 1991 visit to the Eastern Bloc, President Bush met with Soviet President Gorbachev for two days of talks. They have joined forces to sign the START accord and to co-host peace negotiations in the Middle East for October. President Bush stated that he would pursue Congressional authorization for a trade deal between the United States and the Soviet Union and the most-favoured-nation trading status for the Soviet Union. On behalf of the United States, Secretary of State Baker inked five bilateral agreements on issues including air safety, disaster response, medical supply distribution, affordable residential development and financing, and technological and economic relations. The President of the United States met with his Russian counterpart, Boris Yeltsin, while in Moscow.


The high value placed on a first strike by ICBMs equipped with MIRVs is seen as destabilizing. In various Soviet super-heavy rocket designs, the maximum number of warheads that may be carried by one of these missiles is 40. As a bonus, they can transport a massive number of lures. They could destroy a whole country in one blow, along with a large portion of their enemy's missile silos as well as air wing torpedo bombers, thanks to their large stockpile of extremely precise explosives as well as decoys. The side that did strike beforehand can start reducing the adversary ICBM pressure from 101 missile systems to almost four besides firing 30 rockets with 201 nuclear bombs and keeping the residual 61 missile systems in reserve, assuming each side has 99 rockets with four nuclear bombs each and that each 96% chance of neutralizing the enemy's missile systems in their storage facilities by firing two warheads at each silo. Since the quantity of hostile silos somehow does not dramatically grow, the devastation capacity is significantly boosted by MIRVs.

In 1992, the two presidents signed an explicit agreement that marked the beginning of a meaningful partnership. In 1993, both presidents formally signed the pact. The U.S. Senate approved it by a score of 87 to 4. In Russia, however, confirmation sat dormant in the State Legislature for a long time. It was repeatedly extended as a protest against American military activities in Iraq and Kosovo and the growth of NATO in Eastern Europe. Both parties lost all interest in the pact as time progressed because of its declining importance. The Russian Duma accepted the agreement with reservations in 2000. U.S. adherence to the ABM Treaty and Senate approval of a 1997 supplement to START II detailing the delineation of tactical and strategic missile defence systems were two prerequisites. Republican senators headed by Jesse Helms's group were against restrictions on U.S. generally pro-missile defence systems. Hence the U.S. Senate ultimately voted to ratify the addition.

SORT Treaty

Formerly in effect from 2003 until 2011, until the New START pact replaced it, the Deal between the U.S.A. and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offense Reductions was a strategic weapons limitation agreement between both two countries. When signed, both nations agreed to reduce their nuclear arsenal to between 1,800 and 2,300 weapons, with SORT being promoted as "an essential component of the new strategic partnership" between the two nations. The agreement was concluded in 2002 in Moscow. In 2003, SORT officially went into effect after being ratified by the U.S. Senate and the State Duma of Russia. However, for New Beginning, it could have lapsed in 2012. Either side might have terminated the agreement with three months' written notification.


A total of about 12,000 quasi-weapons in the U.S. and 4,000 weapons in Russia were removed from active service due to these programs. There is much mystery surrounding the present condition of Russia's tactical nuclear forces, in addition to serious doubts regarding whether or not Russia will follow through on its claims. The United States Defence Department believes Russia has 1,800 quasi-nuclear weapons, but that number is growing. About 204 B61 gravitational bombs are stored for quasi-purposes by the U.S.

Updated on: 13-Mar-2023


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