Write a short note on the virus, and name any two diseases caused by it.


Virus 

The word Virus comes from the Latin neuter vīrus referring to ‘to poison’ and other ‘toxic liquids’.

Viruses are non-cellular beings that consist of a nucleic acid core (DNA or RNA) which is surrounded by a protein coat. The nucleic acid encodes the unique genetic information for each virus. The shape and size of viruses are determined by the amount and arrangement of the proteins and nucleic acid. 

They can be encoded in so many ways. For example, Rotaviruses are based on a double strand of RNA.

Coronaviruses are based on a single strand of RNA, which is 'positive sense', as in it can be translated directly into new proteins whereas, Influenza has negative-sense RNA, which means it needs an extra transcribing step before it can make proteins.

In DNA viruses, it forces the host to transcribe its genome into RNA on entry.

For example -Smallpox and herpes viruses. 

 

Reproduction Of Viruses

Viruses are tiny infectious agents that depend on living cells to multiply themselves. They may use an animal, plant, or bacteria as a host to survive and reproduce.

There are two processes that are used by viruses to replicate: the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle. 

There are two processes used by viruses to replicate: the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle. Some viruses reproduce or multiply using both methods, while others only use the lytic cycle.

During lytic infection, a virus enters the host cell, makes a copy of itself, and causes the cell to burst that can infect other cells

Diseases caused by the viruses are- Common cold, flu, rabies, ebola, measles, hepatitis, etc.

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Updated on: 10-Oct-2022

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