What is acid, base, and salt?


The substances that taste sour are called acid and their nature is acidic.

• The term acid is derived from a Latin word acere which means sour.

• An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a proton, or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair.

Acid turns blue litmus paper to red. Acid is a substance that contains hydrogen ion (H+).

• Acids do not give colour with phenolphthalein indicator and do not absorb carbon dioxide gas. Also, acids do not react with an ammonium salt.

• Natural Acids are the acids that occur in nature, such as, acids present in fruits.

• Acids are generally found in Vinegar, Curd, Spinach, lemons, Citrus fruits, Amla, Tamarind, grapes, unripe mangoes, Citrus fruits such as oranges, etc.

Acids reacts with Bases to give Salt and Water

Acid + Base --> Salt + Water


• Any class of compounds that form hydroxyl ions (OH) when dissolved in water is called Base. 

• Its aqueous solutions react with acids to form salts. 

• Acid + Base --> Salt + Water.

• Bases turn red litmus paper blue and have a pH greater than 7.

• Some of the common bases are NH4OH, NaOH, KOH.

• Bases are Bitter in taste.

• Bases are Odorless (except ammonia).

• Bases are slippery.

• Bases react with fats and oils.

• It gives pink colour with phenolphthalein.


• A neutralization reaction is when an acid and a base react to form water and a salt

• It involves the combination of H+ ions and OH- ions to generate water. 

• When a solution is neutralized, it means that salts are formed from equal weights of acid and base.

• Acid + Base --> Salt + Water.

• Therefore salt is a combination of a metal ion and a non-metal ion.

• Eg: NaCl, KCl.


Simply Easy Learning

Updated on: 10-Oct-2022


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