State differences between acids and bases.

The differences between acids and bases are as follows:-





Arrhenius Concept

Acid is the substance when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of H+ ions.

The base is the substance when dissolved in water, increase the concentration of OH- ions.

Bronsted-Lowry Concept

Acids are the proton donor.

Bases are the proton acceptor.

Chemical formula

Such a compound whose chemical formula begins with H, for example, HCl (Hydrochloric acid), H3BO3 (Boric acid), CH2O3 (Carbonic

acid). Although CH3COOH (Acetic acid) is an exception.

Such compounds whose chemical formula ends with OH, for example, KOH (Potassium hydroxide), NaOH (Sodium hydroxide).

pH scale (concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution)

Less than 7.

Greater than 7.

Physical Characteristics

Sour in taste.

Gives a burning sensation.

Acids are usually sticky

Reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas.

Bitter in taste.

Odourless (except ammonia).

Bases are slippery.

Reacts with fats and oils.

Phenolphthalein Indicator

Litmus test

It remains colourless.

Turns blue litmus paper to red.

It gives a pink colour.

Turns red litmus paper to blue.


Dissociation when mixed with water

Depends on the concentration of hydronium ions.

Acids dissociate to give free hydrogen ions (H+) after mixing in water.

Depends on the concentration of hydroxide ions.

Bases dissociate to give free hydroxide ions (OH-) after mixing in water.

Examples Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Nitric acid (HNO3), Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
Uses Used as preservatives, fertilizers, as preservatives, used as carbonated drinks, processing leather, household cleaning, making sodas, flavour to food, etc.

Used in gastric medicine (antacid), soaps, detergents, cleanser, antiperspirant armpit deodorant, non-hazardous alkali to neutralise acidic wastewater, neutralise soil acidity.


Simply Easy Learning

Updated on: 10-Oct-2022


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