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State differences between acids and bases.
The differences between acids and bases are as follows:-
BASIS FOR COMPARISON
Acid is the substance when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of H+ ions.
The base is the substance when dissolved in water, increase the concentration of OH- ions.
Acids are the proton donor.
Bases are the proton acceptor.
Such a compound whose chemical formula begins with H, for example, HCl (Hydrochloric acid), H3BO3 (Boric acid), CH2O3 (Carbonic
acid). Although CH3COOH (Acetic acid) is an exception.
Such compounds whose chemical formula ends with OH, for example, KOH (Potassium hydroxide), NaOH (Sodium hydroxide).
pH scale (concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution)
|Less than 7.|
Greater than 7.
Sour in taste.
Gives a burning sensation.
Acids are usually sticky
Reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas.
Bitter in taste.
Odourless (except ammonia).
Bases are slippery.
Reacts with fats and oils.
It remains colourless.
Turns blue litmus paper to red.
It gives a pink colour.
Turns red litmus paper to blue.
Dissociation when mixed with water
Depends on the concentration of hydronium ions.
Acids dissociate to give free hydrogen ions (H+) after mixing in water.
Depends on the concentration of hydroxide ions.
Bases dissociate to give free hydroxide ions (OH-) after mixing in water.
|Examples||Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Nitric acid (HNO3), Carbonic acid (H2CO3)|
Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
|Uses||Used as preservatives, fertilizers, as preservatives, used as carbonated drinks, processing leather, household cleaning, making sodas, flavour to food, etc.|
Used in gastric medicine (antacid), soaps, detergents, cleanser, antiperspirant armpit deodorant, non-hazardous alkali to neutralise acidic wastewater, neutralise soil acidity.
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