Explain Rutherford’s α-particle scattering experiment and give its observation and conclusion drawn.

 Rutherford’s α-particle scattering experiment:
Fast-moving α-particles were made to fall on a thin gold foil. Particles have + 2 charge and 4u mass, and a considerable amount of energy.
(1) Most of the α-particles passed straight through the foil.
(2) Some of the α-particles were deflected by small angles by the foil.
(3) One out of every 12000 particles rebounded.

Conclusion from observation:
(1) Most of the space inside the foil is empty.
(2) Positive charge of the atom occupies very little space.
(3) Mass of the atom is concentrated in the centre with all positive charges concentrated in small volumes within the atom.

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