Draw a diagram of the human excretory system and label the various parts.

The organs that form the excretory system in human beings are a pair of kidneys, renal arteries, renal veins, a pair of ureters, a urinary bladder, and a urethra.


The bean-shaped kidneys are protected by the ribs and back muscles. Each adult kidney is 10–12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and weighs 120–170 g. The inner kidneys are concave. The hilum is a notch on the kidney's inner concave surface where blood vessels, ureter, and nerves enter. The renal pelvis, an inner funnel-shaped region, has multiple calyces.

Kidney structure:

Capsule: outer layer. Inside the kidney are the cortex and medulla. The cortex forms Bertin columns between medullary pyramids.

Nephrons are kidney cells. The glomerulus and renal tubule make up each nephron.

The glomerulus contains afferent arteriole-formed capillaries. Efferent arterioles transport glomerulus blood.

Bowman's capsule encloses the glomerulus in the renal tubule. Glomerulus and Bowman's capsule make up the Malpighian body. The proximal convoluted tubule is close to Bowman's capsule.

Loop Henle

Henle's loop has to rise and descend limbs. The distal convoluted tubule continues from the ascending loop. Many nephrons' distal tubules open into the collecting duct.

The Malpighian corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, and distal convoluted tubule are in the kidney's cortical region. The medullary region contains a loop of Henle.

Cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons exist. The cortical loop of Henle is short and reaches only slightly into the medulla. The loop of Henle runs deep into the medulla in juxtamedullary.

Ureter: Each kidney's renal pelvis has a pair of ureters. It transports kidney pee to the bladder.

Urinary BladderMuscle sacs store urine. Urination empties the bladder.

Urethra: The urinary bladder's tube helps discharge urine. In males, it transports sperm and urine. Muscles protect their entrance.

In human beings, urine formation involves three major processes, namely glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion, which take place in different parts of the nephron.


Simply Easy Learning

Updated on: 10-Oct-2022


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started