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Describe the various ways by which seeds are dispersed.
Seed dispersal is the dispersion or movement or spreading of seeds away from the site of origin or parent plant. It can be done with different modes such as:
(i) Biotic agents: Birds and animals.
(ii) Abiotic agents: Gravity, wind, ballistic, water.
For example, Moringa seeds are dispersed by wind. The seeds of balsam are dispersed by the explosion. Seeds of coconut are dispersed by water.
Seeds are dispersed through the water due to the following characteristics:
Plants that grow near water sources depend upon water to transport their seeds. Seeds produced for dispersal through water are light in weight and fluffy. Few species of marine, pond, and beach plants have waterborne seeds. Examples of these plants include sea kale, sea rocket, water plantain, etc.
Coconut is a fruit that is dispersed through water. It is light and buoyant with the ability to float as it contains an outer fibrous coat. It is well adapted to reach the land where it can germinate.
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