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(a) Name the red pigment which carries oxygen in the blood.
(b) Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mammals and birds ?
(c) How many chambers are there in the heart of : (i) an amphibian, (ii) a mammal, and (iii) a fish ?(d) Describe the circulatory system in a fish.
(a) Hemoglobin is the red pigment that carries oxygen in the blood.
(b) It is necessary to separate the oxygenated and the deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds as it allows a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the blood cells. As they have high energy needs so they constantly require energy to maintain their body temperature.
(c) (i) An amphibian has a three-chambered heart, with two auricles and one ventricle.
(ii) A mammal has a four-chambered heart. The upper two chambers are called atria and the lower two chambers are called ventricles.
(iii) A fish has a two-chambered heart, with one auricle and one ventricle.
(d) A fish has a two-chambered heart, with one auricle and one ventricle. The deoxygenated blood passes from the ventricles into the gills for oxygenation. The oxygenated blood from the gills moves through the different body parts of the fish where oxygen is utilized and carbon dioxide enters the blood, thereby making the blood deoxygenated. The deoxygenated blood is then returned to the heart to be pumped again into the gills for oxygenation.
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