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Nicosia Models Of Consumer Behavior
Two of the newest models highlight the advancements in consumer behavior modelling. The first is the Nicosia model, which focuses on the interaction between the marketing organization and its target consumers throughout the consumer choice process. On the other hand, Bettman's consumer choice information processing model focuses on the techniques consumers use to operationalize the complicated work of information processing.
Nicosia's Model of Consumer Decision Process
This model elaborates on customers' decision-making phases before purchasing products or services. It is written in the style of a comprehensive computer flow chart. The model can be reduced for clarity by grouping its many aspects into fields and subfields. The model's many components are linked via direct and feedback loops. As a result, the marketing organization impacts the target customers. Customers, in turn, influence the marketer's subsequent decisions through the repercussions of the marketer's actions. This procedure continues.
The model's key fields and subfields are as follows −
Marketing Communications Affecting Consumer Attitude
Marketing communications encompass mass media and personal communications, products, pricing, and distribution. Consumer attitudes and perceptions are influenced by exposure to these traits. These impacts on customers are determined by their traits (such as values, personality, and cumulative experiences). After absorbing the marketer's inputs, the customer constructs his attitudes as inputs for the following field.
Consumer's Search and Evaluation
Consumer research and evaluation occur before the consumer is prompted to buy the product. He obtains further information and compares the qualities of rival goods. The evaluation criteria change due to prior consumer experiences and marketer inputs in the form of a marketing mix.
This is Nicosia model field 3—the buyer shops for the product after being prompted to buy the brand. The selection of an honest merchant is also made here.
Consumption Experience and Feedback:
After acquiring a product, the customers' experience with its consumption might affect them in various ways. The negative experience may prevent him from making a future purchase and reduce his attitude and assessments of the goods. The favorable encounter may encourage him to remain loyal to the product. In any event, the sector gives valuable input to marketers. The marketer may fine-tune the marketing inputs for the following cycle using this feedback.
At first view, Nicosia's model appears straightforward and apparent. Nevertheless, its usefulness rests in integrating the body of knowledge in the domain of consumer behavior that existed before its formation. It also elucidates how non-action factors in the environment associated with consumers cause actions at the consumer's end. The model's flowcharting method significantly systematizes the model's presentation. Nevertheless, it also limits the variety of options available to customers. These restrictions may even be unreasonable. This type of circumstance limits the model's breadth and adaptability.
Bettman’s Information Processing Model of Consumer Choice
This approach places the customer at the center of several information-processing processes. The consumer is bombarded with information from the marketer, rivals, and the rest of the environment. Furthermore, he has a database that he has constructed through time based on his experiences, personality, and beliefs. Because dealing with that much information at once might be difficult, the model assumes that consumers employ specific simplifying tactics. He can analyze some information by applying these choice techniques (heuristics). He can also use some basic decision rules to offer solutions to particular circumstances.
This paradigm is also based on several flowcharts. These flowcharts describe the components and relationships involved in the decision-making process. The following are the model's primary components −
Bettinan's consumer behavior model is solely focused on information processing. The research seeks to confirm it while also focusing on customer information handling. Customers are encouraged to explain the mental process they use while making decisions. These strategies are rich in consumer information yet challenging to use effectively.
This model elaborates on customers' decision-making phases before purchasing products or services. It is written in the style of a comprehensive computer flow chart. This model can be reduced for clarity by grouping its many aspects into fields and subfields. These models' many components are linked via direct and feedback loops.
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