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New kingdoms along the coasts
Following the collapse of the Mauryan empire, a string of new, independent kingdoms began to emerge along the coast. In the beginning, new kingdoms began to develop in the most southern part of India and gradually moved their way towards the northern part of the country. India became a target for conquest by foreign powers such as the Greeks. Because most of the population used to rely on agriculture for their livelihood, the river valleys in the southern part of the country experienced significant economic growth. This was the primary factor that led to new kingdoms in the coastal regions.
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Establishment of New Kingdoms
River valleys were historically the most prosperous parts of the country; consequently, the kings and chiefs who controlled these valleys were also the wealthiest and most powerful in the country. The Sangam literature provided historians and archaeologists with the information they needed to comprehend the potential of new kingdoms. A word called “Muvendra” is mentioned in some Sangam poems.
The word "Muvendra" was used to refer to the chiefs of the following three tribes:
The Cheras, and
These warlords held the most influence in the southern region of India. These prominent figures lived approximately 2300 years ago.
Three Southern India Chiefs
The three chiefs mentioned above formerly controlled two different power bases between them. The first capital or significant town was established in the inland region, and the second capital or significant town was established in the coastal region. The establishment of a second capital was done to make it easier for them to conduct business. Only two of the six centres of power were of significant importance.
The first was Puhar, which was located near the Kaveri river, and the second was Madurai, a place where a variety of poets would gather to compose poems on the chiefs. These poems eventually became an essential component of Sangam literature. The Cholas were the original owners of the Puhar, while the Pandays were the original owners of Madurai. Additionally, the Cheras had important centres such as Korki.
Roles New Kingdoms Played
In contrast to the modern empire, the chiefs were not responsible for collecting taxes even though, in the past, they demanded as well as accepted gifts from other people. These kingdoms were known for their military campaigns and collecting tributes from the territories surrounding them. They kept some of the wealth for themselves while dividing the rest of it among the military, family members, citizens, and poets.
Additionally, they kept some of the wealth for themselves. When a chief read a poet's poem that praised the chief, the poet would receive a reward if the chief liked the poem.
They were rewarded with valuable goods such as clothing, horses, precious stones, gold, and silver for their efforts.
Satvahanas was a significant coastal region. It is believed that this kingdom existed between the second and third centuries. The Satvahanas claimed that they descended from the Sun dynasty. Around two thousand years ago, this dynasty rose to prominence in the western part of the country and eventually became the most powerful.
It is said that Gautamiputra Shri Satakarmi was an important ruler during the Satavahanas. It is believed that Gautami Balashri, who was Gautamiputra's mother, wrote the inscriptions that talk about the kingdom of Satavahana and the glory of Gautamiputra. These inscriptions were discovered.
The Satavahanas were also referred to as the lords of Dakshinapatha during their time. This is because to travel to southern India; one had to pass through the kingdom of the Satvanahanas. Every king had the goal of growing both their territory and their kingdom.
As a result, Satavahana rulers would frequently dispatch armies on military campaigns to the country's regions located in the east, west, and south.
Q1. How did the new kingdoms in India come into existence?
Ans. Following the fall of the Mauryan empire, a slew of new, independent kingdoms sprouted up along the coast. New kingdoms first arose in India's far south and gradually spread northward. River valleys were historically the most prosperous areas of the country; as a result, the kings and chiefs who ruled over these valleys were also the wealthiest and most powerful in the country.
The Sangam literature gave historians and archaeologists the knowledge they needed to understand the potential of new kingdoms. The term "Muvendra" was applied to the chiefs of three distinct tribes: the Cholas, the Cheras, and the Pandays.
Q2. What were the roles of the new kingdoms?
Ans. In contrast to the modern empire, chiefs did not collect taxes, even though they demanded and accepted gifts. These kingdoms were known for their military campaigns and tributes. Some of the wealth went to the military, family, citizens, and poets. They kept some of the wealth. If a chief liked a laudatory poem, the poet was rewarded. They were rewarded with clothes, horses, gems, gold, and silver.
Q3. Discuss about Satavahanas.
Ans. Satvahanas was a major coastal region. This kingdom is thought to have existed between the second and third centuries. The Satvahanas claimed descent from the Sun dynasty. This dynasty rose to prominence in the western part of the country around two thousand years ago and eventually became the most powerful. Gautamiputra Shri Satakarmi has been a powerful ruler during the Satavahanas. The inscriptions about the kingdom of Satavahana and Gautamiputra's glory are thought to have been written by Gautami Balashri, Gautamiputra's mother.
Q4. What happened after the collapse of the Mauryan empire?
Ans. Following the demise of the Mauryan Empire, India became a prize for the conquest of other nations, like the Greeks. River valleys in the southern part of the country experienced significant economic growth due to the majority of the population's historical reliance on agriculture as their primary source of income. This was the most important driving force that resulted in establishing new kingdoms in the coastal areas.
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