Means-ends Analysis

Problem−solving is an important mental process with the ultimate goal of overcoming obstacles and finding a solution that best resolves the issue. Goal−based problem solving, a framework that describes the solution to a problem by discovering a series of activities that leads to a desirable goal, is a crucial component of AI−based intelligent behavior. A goal−seeking system is meant to be connected to its external environment by sensory and motor channels, respectively, via which it gets information about the environment and makes changes to it. (The terms "efferent" and "afferent" are used to characterize "outward" motor orders and "inward" sensory inputs, respectively.) The system also includes some mechanisms for storing information about the status of the environment (afferent information) and information about actions (efferent information) in memory. The ability to achieve objectives depends on the ability to create simple or complicated linkages between specific state changes and the specific activities that will cause these changes. Search is the process of finding and putting together a series of actions that will move a given situation closer to the desired situation. While this approach may be suitable for machine learning and problem−solving, it is not necessarily advised for people.

What is Means-End Analysis?

The means-ends analysis is a problem-solving strategy in which an issue or problem is resolved by considering the barriers that stand in the way of the target state and the initial problem state. The removal of these barriers (and, recursively, the barriers preventing the removal of those barriers) is then specified as a (simpler) sub-goal to be accomplished. The main objective of interest has been accomplished once all of the sub-goals have been completed, and all roadblocks have been removed. Means−ends analysis may be seen as a search method where the long−term objective is constantly kept in mind to guide issue solutions since the sub−goals have been prompted by the need to accomplish the primary goal. Unlike other search methods like climbing hills, it is not a near−sighted approach.

A variant of means-ends analysis is divide−and−conquer. Divide−and−conquer is entirely recursive, which means that the sub−problems that are solved are always of the same type. This is the main difference between the two, and it is more adaptable and less visibly recursive since not all of the sub-problems established for means-ends analysis must be of the same kind.

Conceptualization of Means-ends Analysis

Newell and Simon developed the problem−solving approach known as means-ends analysis. Since the 1950s, problem-solving has been utilized to foster innovation and creativity. Another method to view organizational planning that aids in reaching end goals is through means−end analysis.

Sub−goals in Means−End Analysis and Intermediate Steps −

Means−End Analysis makes it feasible to manage the entire problem−solving procedure. It begins with a predefined goal or objective, from which sub−goals or activities are selected to achieve that objective. Everything is interconnected in order to achieve the final objective; each action taken leads to the one that follows. Problems might, however, develop in the interim, and finding the exact location of the crux is frequently difficult.

Forward and backward investigation may be carried out to establish the site of the stagnation with the use of the Means−End Analysis. Because of this, it is possible to tackle a problem's bigger issues before moving on to its minor ones.

Intermediate Steps

All crucial tasks and intermediary processes leading to the goal should be included in the analysis in order to make them identifiable and ensure that Means−End Analysis is successful. It is also useful to quantify the differences between the actual state of each activity and the planned state, as well as track (minor) changes. If this does not happen, there is a big chance that an error or alteration will have more effects on subsequent acts, making it tougher and harder to intervene.


Every organization has objectives that must be accomplished. A short−term goal (a week or a month), a mid-long term goal (a year), and a long-term goal (several years) are chosen depending on the aim.

When these objectives are achieved, it is pleasant for the company and the personnel. It is simpler to focus and stay on track if you perform a Means−End Analysis beforehand and analyze the means and the intermediate steps. It is true that objectives do not magically materialize, and action should be taken after thorough planning. Without preparation, there is a good probability that the organization may veer off course and miss its intended target.

Means-End Analysis Example

It is advisable to think from large to small when performing a means−end analysis; the ultimate objective has to be broken down into smaller sub−goals so that everyone involved in the effort can manage it.

For instance, a simple example of having the target of completing the academic syllabus for a degree in six months can be viewed through the lens of means−end analysis. Subgoals must be created to smooth the problem−solving process to meet the target or complete the goal. One can set a target of completing one chapter or unit daily or devote six to eight hours daily to the same. To make measurable outcomes, one can practice and solve multiple choice questions (MCQs) on a daily basis to keep track of the progress so that the end goal is accomplished within the stipulated time frame.


At first look, the means−end analysis could appear to be overly straightforward. However, once it is put to use, it becomes evident that it is an important and practical approach to problem−solving. The problem-solving process can be broken down into two simple steps− "Defining the initial goal" by outlining the issue that needs to be resolved. This is the most significant phase, and it makes sure the person is attempting to address the correct issue and not simply a surface−level symptom of a larger problem. The next step is to "Visualise the goal state," which entails imagining the ideal situation in which one would like to be. Once the issue has been resolved, one would want to see this result.