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Aquatic ecosystems cover almost 70% of the earth's surface. An aquatic ecosystem comprises two habitats fresh water and marine habitats. The freshwater habitat contain low salt content. It includes ponds, lakes, streams, wetlands, swamps, and rivers. Marine habitat contain relatively high salt. Oceans, reefs, and intertidal zones are examples of marine biology. Marine biology is the study of life in the marine environment. In this tutorial, we are going to learn about marine biology in depth.
What is Marine Biology?
The scientific study of the marine ecosystem is known as Marine Biology. The marine system contains a high percentage of salt. There are different types of marine biomes present in our environment. That includes various types of oceans, swamps rich in salt water, reefs, and intertidal zones. The vast number of species in the oceans ranges from microscopic phytoplankton and zooplanktons to a large number of aquatic organisms that include aquatic plants and animals like whales, sharks, and others that live in marine ecosystems. In other words, marine biology involves interdependence between marine life, the ecosystem, and its environment.
Marine life includes all the plants and animals that live in sea and ocean ecosystems that are rich in salts. Plants and animals include from smallest microorganisms to macroscopic organisms. All the organism present in the marine ecosystem plays a significant role to maintain the marine ecosystem.
Various types of microscopic organisms are present in marine life.
Bacteria is a single-celled organism that plays an important role in marine ecosystems. Many chemical processes are supported by bacteria in oceans.
Another group of marine organisms is known as phytoplankton. Phytoplankton prepare their own food with the help of photosynthesis. Algae is an example of phytoplankton that converts sunlight and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen.
Apart from these fungi and viruses, zooplanktons are present in the marine environment.
There are various types of fish that live in oceans. Atlantic code is an example of ocean fish that can live up to 25 years. Some of the oceans fish are listed below:
Marine mammals includes large sea creatures that live under water. Some of the marine mammals are listed below:
The marine reptiles mainly includes turtle species. This includes:
Green sea turtles
Hawksbill sea turtles
In coastlines and coastal water the sea birds are found. The species include:
Apart from these cephalopods, shellfish, and crustaceans play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem that includes −
How does the Ocean Food Chain Work?
The base of the ocean food chain is the phytoplankton. In the next level zooplankton are placed. The phytoplankton is eaten by zooplankton. And then the zooplankton is eaten by bigger animals such as fish, whales, etc.
Branches of Marine Biology
The branches of marine biology are listed below −
It includes the study of microscopic organisms like bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.
It includes the study of food chains that starts from phytoplankton which is known as the primary producer.
Microbes help develop medicines and cure diseases and other health issues.
Phycology is the study of algae.
Study of cetaceans like dolphins, whales, and porpoises.
Studies include their behavior, habitats, health, reproduction, and populations.
These are some of the most fascinating creatures in the sea; therefore, this is an extremely competitive field.
Study of invertebrate organisms like mollusks, and sponges.
Study of fish.
It includes the study of fish based on their morphology, classification, ecology, evolution, and diversity.
Many ichthyologists are also involved in the field of aquaculture and fisheries.
Study of amphibians and reptiles.
How Marine Biology is Studied
The different methods to study marine biology are described below −
Trawling − Trawling method is used at one time. Here the marine specimens are collected to study.
Plankton nets − These nets are made up of very fine wave materials. It collects microorganisms to study their characteristics and features.
ROVs − ROVs are known as remotely operated vehicles. They are used underwater. The vehicle is equipped with cables and cameras. They send the information about marine species to researchers while they are in the water.
Fibre optics − To study the characteristics and features of marine animal fiber optics are used. Fiber optics are equipped with a low-light camera and LED light.
Satellites − Satellites are used to study the geographic data of the ocean, its temperature data, and its colour. Cold upwelling, climate, and current are included in the temperature data of the ocean.
Sounding − It is used to monitor marine activities like waves, ships, and other marine activities.
Sonar − It is used to measure the depth of the ocean as well as the identification of large objects. It is also used to detect underwater echoes.
Computer technology − Computer technology is used to collect, process, analyse, and display data on the marine environment.
Importance of Marine Biology
Due to the growing population, we will continue to look at the marine ecosystem for food and water so that our basic needs be fulfilled.
With the improvement of science and technology, we are able to get food, energy sources, and drinking water from the ocean.
Aquatic ecosystems cover almost 70% of the earth's surface. An aquatic ecosystem comprises two habitats fresh water and marine habitats. The scientific study of the marine ecosystem is known as Marine Biology. The Marine system contains a high percentage of salt. The vast number of species in the oceans ranges from microscopic phytoplankton and zooplanktons to a large number of aquatic organisms that include aquatic plants and animals like whales, sharks, and others that live in marine ecosystems.
Q1. What is a wetland?
Ans: It is a shallow water body such as swamps, marshes, bogs, etc. In freshwater wetlands the water flow is steady and it's a habitat for plants and animals.
Q2. What do you understand by food chain?
Ans: Food chain is the sequence of transfer of energy from one organism to another. The transfer of energy is done when one organism eats another in an ecosystem for its survival. The food chain starts with producer organisms likely to be autotrophs and ends with decomposing organisms.
Q3. What do you mean by zooplankton?
Ans: Zooplankton is a microscopic organism that includes krill, sea snails, larva of fish and crabs. Due to its microscopic appearance, it can float and swim easily in the water current.
Q4. What do you understand by the swamp?
Ans: Swamp is an area of land that is covered with water. It is subdivided into fresh water and salt water swamps. It is distributed among all the continents.
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