Long Term Memory

The study of Baddeley suggests that information stored in long-term memory is encoded linguistically. Visual data must first be stored in cognitive function to be permanently remembered. The rate at which new data is added to a good memory is based on how much can be kept in visual working memory at any time. The ability to store more data in working memory means that new information can be absorbed more quickly. This transition from working memory to prolonged storage occurs via a process called synaptic integration. The engram is imprinted inside terminals during the first few minutes or days after learning, making it robust against distraction.

Explaining Long Term Memory

Simply put, long-term memory is the ability to remember things for a long time, and this kind of recollection is reliable and often durable, frequently persisting for decades. One might consider the distinction between "explicit" and "implicit" recall to categorize long-term memory further.

Types of Long-Term Memory

Sometimes the brain stores vivid imaginations in a place that is not consciously accessible. We do not consciously keep this data in mind, but we may bring it into cognitive function when we need it. Some of our recollections come back quickly and easily, whereas others are far more difficult to bring up.

Understanding how to perform something is called procedural knowledge. The ability to play an instrument, ride a bike, tie one's boots and other motor abilities were all part of this category. The process does not need any reflective thinking, and we may wash our teeth without giving any thought to the specialized abilities required.

Explicit − All recollections accessible to one's awareness fall under the category of memory formation, also called declarative remembrances. Two subcategories of memory formation are temporal recollection as well as abstract thinking.

Implicit − Unconscious recollections make up what we call the "implicit past." Procedural memory is part of this category and contains recollections about utilizing tools and manipulating physical items. Instances of procedural memory are knowing how to operate a motor vehicle and perhaps a laptop.

Semantic Memory

The world's data is stored in semantic memory, a subset of explicit good memory. Word−specific and generalized information are both included here. As an illustration, London serves as the metropolis of England, and it is deliberate and uses declarative language. Semantic memory stores information we have determined to be true via a process of "understanding that" it is so. It is possible, for instance, that the fact that Paris is France's center is stored in our semantic memory.

Procedural Memory

Understanding how to carry out a task is stored in a kind of long-term associative memory called procedural memory. Because it is not a deliberate mental process, we cannot call it a definitive statement. To illustrate, knowing how to ride a bicycle would be an instance of procedural memory.

Episodic Memory

Episodic memory is a subset of explicit protracted memory that stores specifics about individual experiences. It is deliberate, and it uses declarative language. One such recollection may be of our very first day of school. Episodic memory stores information based on an individual's recollection of certain instances, such as when a particular event occurred. One such instance of a memory recall is recalling the fact that one rode the bus to university today.

The Period of Long Term Memory

The information stored in working memory may be transferred to good memory via connection and repetition. The average lifespan of long−term memory ranges from a few days to several decades.

  • Many variables affect how long knowledge is stored in good memory.

  • It is important to note that the initial encoding of the memory might be a factor. A much more vivid recollection is likely if one were fully there and awake throughout the occurrence.

  • The frequency with which a recollection is retrieved also affects its stability over time. It seems to reason that the recollections one brings to mind have a greater chance of being entrenched and robust in one's mind.

Formation of Long Term Memory

Human memory is compared to a laptop in the data paradigm. The process of storing data in good memory is analogous to saving a file to a portable hard drive− first, data is contained in poor memory. Recalling information from long−term memory that has been accessed often is facilitated by strengthening that information. Repeated recall from such memories is facilitated by strengthening the neural network models that hold the data. Similar to how a laptop's saved folder may be accessed, environmental cues can be used to retrieve information from prolonged storage when it is required. Memories may be altered or lost entirely in any case. If a person does not use memory frequently, it may fade or be overwritten by newer knowledge.

Prompt Change

Research suggests that recollections are not stored in a dormant state and can thus not be retrieved with complete lucidity. Emotions change each moment they are retrieved, according to the studies. The cortex, as well as the hippocampus, are the initial areas where cells acquire recollections. Every time one remembers a recollection, it is re-encoded by a group of neurons close to the original but not exactly. Memory retrieval improves retention. However, studies show that re−encoding might alter how well data is retained. Based on which cells are stimulated, the recollection may shift subtly, and some features may be bolstered, diminished, or lost entirely.


Surprisingly, recollections may be easily altered, misinformed, and disrupted. Elizabeth Loftus, a recollection specialist, demonstrated how simple it is to recall erroneous past events. She is the greatest popular test convincing 20 percent of people that they had previously been lost as children in a shopping district. Sometimes individuals fail to notice vital information. The mind often invents fictitious but rationale−sounding specifics to compensate for these informational gaps.


The ability to store knowledge for later recall is crucial for everyday living. Even though it is tempting to treat memories like data on a laptop, studies have shown that good memory is reliable and prone to mistakes.