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Lifespan Development: Definition and Meaning
The term "development" refers to more than just becoming larger. Instead, it is a gradual succession of quantitative and qualitative changes that occur orderly and logically, leading the individual to maturity. The phrase 'progressive' refers to improvements oriented forward rather than backward. Quantitative changes are increases in number or amount, such as size, height, weight, bodily circumference, vocabulary, and so on. Changes in kind, structure, organization, and function are examples of qualitative changes.
What is Lifespan Development?
The lifespan development concept contends that lifelong development is multifaceted, multidirectional, plastic, multidisciplinary, and contextual. Previously, most scientific literature on development concentrated on childhood and adolescence. This is because the changes during these early years are swift, evident, and noticeable, particularly physical, mental, and personality distinctions that are not as easily discernible in later life as in early life. It was also considered that the adult could be understood in terms of childhood experiences since the adult was viewed as a finished product rather than a constantly changing individual. In addition, life expectancy was very low, and few academics focused their efforts on studying the full life cycle. Adult physical and behavioral changes were so modest that their importance in the developmental process was overlooked for many years.
The Lifespan Perspective
Paul Baltes identified underlying principles that govern the lifespan perspective. Lifespan theorists hold certain assumptions about development that have been listed below −
While developmental psychologists focus exclusively on childhood experiences and their importance for the longest time, lifespan theorists believe that change occurs throughout the lifespan and that development occurs continuously. No one age group is more significant, defining, or dominant in the development of humans.
Multi-Directionality of Development
The changes humans undergo are not restricted to just one direction, i.e., growth only sometimes entails a positive. We might display improvements in some developmental areas while displaying losses in others. Every transition involves both gain and loss, whether graduating from high school, getting married, or having a child.
Multi-Dimensionality of Development
Physical, cognitive, and psycho-social are the three broad categories or dimensions that we evolve over. Changes in height and weight, sensory capacities, the nervous system, and the likelihood of sickness and illness are all included in the physical realm. The evolution of intellect, experience, perception, problem-solving, memory, and language are all included in the cognitive domain. The psycho-social environment concerns how emotion and self-perception evolve and how people interact with their families, friends, and peers. These three realms interact with one another.
Multidisciplinary Nature of Development
Lifespan theorist highlight that development is a broad subject of investigation that requires theories and methodologies of various disciplines and is not just limited to developmental psychology.
Plasticity of Development
The idea of plasticity centers on our capacity for change and the fact that many of our traits are malleable. The brain's capacity to learn from experience and heal after injury are two instances where plasticity has been greatly observed and recorded.
Contextuality of Development
Development is multi-contextual. There exist common contextual influences. For instance, the normative-age graded consequences indicate the common developmental features and change a particular age group's experience. And the normative-history graded effects come from belonging to a specific cohort (people born around the same period in society as this ensures common experiences and hence a similar outlook on life. There are also non-normative life influences, as despite sharing age and history with our peers, each of us has unique experiences that may shape our development. Apart from this, socioeconomic factors like poverty and culture are also contexts that can also influence one's development.
The lifetime development theory takes a biopsychosocial perspective on human development. It has several causes, making it impossible to comprehend within a single framework. The following presumptions underlie this idea −
Beginning at conception and ending with death, development is a lifelong process of maturing and aging. It is impossible to comprehend any one phase in a person's life without understanding the events that came before and after.
Historical, social, and environmental changes have an impact on development. As a result, the experiences of one generation could differ from those of another.
Development throughout a lifetime does not involve a single set of behavioral changes that start at conception, increase with age, and finish with death.
Developmental behaviors may sometimes increase, change, or disappear as life progresses.
By influencing society, new development patterns may bring about societal transformation.
Development can be impacted even by societal change. Making laws prohibiting child punishment at home and in schools is necessary because it harms a kid's personality development.
Periods of Development
Although both eight months old and 8-year-olds are considered children, and both 18 and 80 years old are considered adults, they drastically differ in their cognitive, psycho-social, and physical abilities. Hence, developmental periods are more well-defined than this.
Prenatal Development − This stage begins at conception and lasts till birth. It is important to understand nutrition, genetics, or environmental factors that can lead to congenital disabilities and issues with labor and delivery.
Infancy and Toddlerhood − The stage consists of the first two years of life and is characterized by dramatic growth and change. A newborn, who has poor vision and a keen sense of hearing, very quickly transforms into a toddler, who is capable of talking and walking.
Early Childhood − This stage consists of two- to six-year-olds, also known as the preschool years. At this point, children are busy learning language and gaining a sense of self and greater independence.
Middle and Late Childhood − This group comprises ages six to puberty. Involvement in school becomes a most important part of life at this stage. Children now tend to focus on learning and testing new skills by comparing themselves and others.
Adolescence − Adolescence is a period of dramatic physical change marked by puberty. Cognitive changes accompany this period as they think of new possibilities and consider abstract concepts such as love, justice, and freedom.
Emerging Adulthood − This is the period of transitional time between the end of adolescence and before individuals acquire all the benchmarks of adulthood. Individuals at this stage continuously explore their identity and prepare for full freedom.
Early Adulthood − The twenties and thirties are identified as early adulthood. This stage is accompanied by a focus on work-life, developing intimate relationships, and establishing families.
Middle Adulthood − The forties through the mid-sixties consist of this group. Here aging becomes apparent, and many people are at their peak productivity in love and work.
Late Adulthood − Late adulthood is sometimes subdivided into two categories: The young-old who are from 65-84 years and the oldest-old who are 85 years and older. The fact that the young-old are still largely healthy, productive, energetic, and independent is one of the key distinctions between these groups. The risks of diseases including arteriosclerosis, cancer, and cerebral vascular disease significantly increase with both age groups.
Applications of Lifespan Development
Baltes' view of development as a continuous process is advantageous to society since it may aid in identifying traits or issues peculiar to a given age group. Specific initiatives, such as after-school activities that promote positive youth development, may be implemented if certain characteristics or problems can be recognized. According to positive youth development, all young people can become useful contributors to society. Youth development is encouraged physically, personally, socially, emotionally, intellectually, and spiritually by highlighting their talents. Although the persons' choices, values, and cultures must always be considered when conducting interventions, the participant's needs and preferences must also be considered.
Human lifespan development studies how humans learn, mature, and adapt from infancy to adulthood to the elderly phases of life. Some focus areas include physical, cognitive, social, intellectual, perceptual, personality, and emotional growth. Although it is a broad and complex field involving multiple disciplines, it can be quite a beneficial study domain as it allows individuals to understand themselves and others better and helps develop ways to achieve a quality of life.
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