Pain in the body might be a common experience for many individuals. However, sometimes the pain becomes persistent, and one may feel as though the pain is spreading all over the body, with certain parts particularly affected. This can cause significant impairment in functioning and lead to psychological distress, where the individual feels fatigued, does not get a night of restorative sleep, and has a consequent lack of attention and concentration. The condition might flare up at any time and may abruptly get worse with time, requiring clinical attention.

What is Fibromyalgia?

Fibromyalgia is a long−term, or chronic, condition. It is primarily characterized by musculoskeletal pain or pain in the muscles and bones accompanied by psychological distress, tenderness, fatigue, sleep, and cognitive disturbances.

Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Some of the sensitivity regions in Fibromyalgia often overlap with the associated sensitive points or trigger points. The sites of discomfort do not, however, contain all of these previously reported sensitivity places. The discomfort is described as a constant, dull aching, and Fibromyalgia pain is classified as multisite pain according to current diagnostic criteria. Contrarily, the 1990 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria described the pain associated with the condition as persistent and widespread. Additionally, the diagnostic procedure now concentrates on the locations of musculoskeletal discomfort and the intensity of the pain. In the past, the focus of a fibromyalgia diagnosis was the length of discomfort. The illness may impact both your physical health and your emotions.

Other symptoms of Fibromyalgia include −

  • Weakness or fatigue

  • Difficulty sleeping

  • Non−restorative sleep is characterized by prolonged sleep that does not leave the individual feeling refreshed.

  • Frequent headaches

  • Difficulty concentrating or paying attention

  • Rash

  • Itching

  • Dull aching or soreness in the lower abdomen

  • Disorders with the bladder, such as interstitial cystitis

  • Depression

  • Anxiety


Even for medical professionals, this disorder might be challenging to diagnose. There are no tests to confirm a diagnosis conclusively, and its symptoms mirror those of other illnesses. As a result, Fibromyalgia is frequently misdiagnosed, and women are diagnosed with Fibromyalgia in most instances. Fibromyalgia is typically diagnosed in middle age. However, it can also affect the younger population.


Recent studies indicate that a genetic predisposition, along with one or more triggers like illness, trauma, or stress, appears to be the primary cause of Fibromyalgia. The fibromyalgia discomfort is continuous and broad, although the exact reason for this is not well understood. The brain may lessen one's pain tolerance; over time, feelings that were previously not unpleasant turn into severe ones. Another hypothesis is that the brain or nerves may misinterpret normal pain signals or that they may be overreacted. As a result of their increased sensitivity, they may now inflict unnecessary or excessive pain. The dorsal root ganglion, a group of neurons in the spine, may be aberrant, or there may be a chemical imbalance in the brain that results in the clinical manifestation of pain symptoms.


A family history of Fibromyalgia is common, and individuals are more likely to develop this disorder if a family member already has it. Researchers believe certain gene alterations might be responsible. A few potential genes that influence how chemical pain signals are transmitted between nerve cells have been discovered.

Infections − Fibromyalgia may be brought on by or exacerbated by a former disease. Flu, pneumonia, Epstein−Barr virus, and gastrointestinal illnesses like those brought on by Shigella and Salmonella are a few diseases frequently associated with Fibromyalgia.

Stress and Trauma − Fibromyalgia may occur in those exposed to significant physical or mental trauma. A connection between illness and PTSD has been shown (PTSD). Stress may have similar long−lasting consequences on your body as trauma. Hormonal changes brought on by stress may play a role in Fibromyalgia.


Although some of the stigmas surrounding Fibromyalgia have diminished, the condition can still be difficult to cure. People can control their symptoms and enhance their quality of life with the assistance of medication, counseling, and lifestyle modifications. One could also go through phases that resemble remissions, during which your pain and exhaustion subside.

Medication − Drugs can help individuals sleep better and can also reduce discomfort. Antidepressants, painkillers, and anti−seizure medicines are frequently used for Fibromyalgia. Pain from Fibromyalgia can be persistent and unpleasant enough to make everyday activities difficult. To alleviate the pain symptoms, pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol), aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn) can help. These drugs can reduce discomfort and distress experienced by the individuals and manage the condition better. They might even improve sleep. Although it is not a main symptom of Fibromyalgia, inflammation might occur if a person has a linked disorder like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some of these medications are known to reduce inflammation as well.

  • Opioids − They have also been prescribed to treat pain. However, studies have not demonstrated that they are successful in the long run. Additionally, the narcotic dose is frequently rapidly raised, posing a health danger to those administered these medications. One of the opioids most frequently used to treat Fibromyalgia is tramadol (Ultram).

  • Antidepressants − Antidepressants such as milnacipran (Savella) and duloxetine (Cymbalta) occasionally alleviate fibromyalgia−related pain and tiredness. These drugs could also help people sleep better by adjusting neurotransmitters. Both milnacipran and duloxetine have received FDA approval for the treatment of Fibromyalgia.

Therapeutic Interventions − One might explore alternatives if drugs are unable to alleviate the symptoms completely. Natural medicines can improve your physical and emotional well−being by frequently targeting stress reduction and pain relief. They can be used independently or in conjunction with conventional medical procedures. Natural treatments for Fibromyalgia include −

  • Physical and occupational therapy can help one get stronger and reduce strain on their body.

  • Acupuncture and massage treatment

  • Meditation, exercise, and yoga. If you have hypermobility, you should practice yoga carefully.

  • Intake of nutrient−rich diet and

  • The amino acid called 5−hydroxytryptophan (5−HTP)

Therapy may help to lessen the stress that causes fibromyalgia symptoms. The least expensive alternative could be group therapy, which might help individuals with Fibromyalgia connect with others dealing with similar issues.

Individual therapy is also an option for individuals to receive one−on−one assistance. One method for dealing with stressful conditions is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). It is crucial to remember that most alternative therapies for Fibromyalgia have not undergone extensive research or been shown to be efficient. Before attempting some of these procedures, consulting a medical expert about the advantages and disadvantages is imperative.


As seen in Fibromyalgia, everyday living with pain, exhaustion, and other symptoms can impact one's quality of life. The fact that so many people misunderstand Fibromyalgia further complicates the condition. People who think they have the disorder should visit a competent medical professional for assistance. Choosing whether to visit a doctor might be challenging because many fibromyalgia symptoms are first broad. However, if someone experiences extensive discomfort for more than a few weeks, especially if they also have other symptoms like difficulty sleeping or paying attention, they should visit a doctor.

Updated on: 12-Dec-2022


Kickstart Your Career

Get certified by completing the course

Get Started