Explain how animals in Vertebrata are classified into further subgroups.

AcademicBiologyNCERTClass 9

Animals in Vertebrata are classified into further subgroups based on several criteria: exoskeleton, respiratory organs, chambered heart, mode of living, birth-giving method, etc.

The vertebrates are further classified into Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Pisces, and Mammalia.


Vertebrates possess a well-defined internal skeleton system and a backbone. They have well-developed brains and advanced nervous systems. Vertebrates have bilateral body symmetry, closed circulatory systems, and compound eyes. They have complex organs with specified functions. Vertebrates have two layers of skin known as dermis, and epidermis. The mode of nutrition in vertebrates is usually heterotrophic. Examples of vertebrates include mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, etc.


Invertebrates are creatures that lack a backbone. The exoskeleton of invertebrates protects their fragile inner body. They feature radial or bilateral body symmetry, an open circulatory system, and a neurological system that is simple and disorganized. They have compound eyes and a single skin layer. Invertebrates are free-living, heterotrophic, and parasitic. Between 95% and 98% of all animal species are invertebrates. A few examples of invertebrates are annelids, arthropods, bivalves, coelenterates, echinoderms, squid, sponges, and snails.

raja
Updated on 10-Oct-2022 12:47:36

Advertisements