Electric Car


The electric car is the best achievement by the automobile sector to make the earth pollution-free. Also, it reduces transportation costs due to no fuel charges or lowmaintains costs. If we have a look at the history of the electric car, the first electric car was invented by Gustave Trouve in 1881. The car made by Gustave is a personal fullscale electric car. However, Gustave’s car didn’t get any admiration or success.

Gustave Trouvé's electric tricycle, the first electric vehicle in history to be displayed to the public

Jacques CATTELIN, Capture d’écran 2016-10-14 à 21.26.28, CC BY-SA 4.0

1st Electric Car

After GustaveTrouve, Ford Motors and English eclectic engineer Thomas Parker collab and manufactured a full-size electric car in 1895. Although the invention of the electric car is very early this innovation was adopted and researched for commercialization. The electric car which makes the idea of electric vehicles popular was Tesla’s Roadster. The first legal version of Tesla’s Roadster was introduced in California in 2008. At present, the idea of electric cars is a top-grossing innovation and also modern cars are very successful in all terrains, such as sand, road, hills, etc.

Nowadays, all-electric cars are powered by Batteries, that can be charged at charging stations and at home. There are some other types of electric cars rather than Battery Electric Vehicles(BEVs), such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles(HEVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electic Vehicles, (PHEVs), and Fuel Cell Electic Vehicles(FCEVs). Although, scientists are working on the development of electric cars which will be powered and charged by solar energy. However, the first Solar Powered car is at the stage of production-ready invented by Lightyear Company. Hopefully, the company will deliver the first order by November 2022.

Here, we are going to discuss Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

What is Electric Car?

The electric car is also a car like other conventional cars we see on roads daily but the difference is in the source of energy they use for work. An electric car is powered by electric motors and the source of energy to operate the motors is derived from batteries.

All the motors in electric cars use electric energy to perform all mechanical operations like the rotation of wheels on road, cooling the cabin, etc. As electric cars have no internal combustion engine so they do not produce any harmful emissions of gases like $\mathrm{CO_{2}}$,$\mathrm{SO_{2}}$, etc. Hence electric cars and other electric vehicles are called Green Vehicles. Electric cars have the same structure as other Internal Combustion powered cars.

Principle of Electric cars

The electric cars are powered by electric motors so they work on the same principle, on which electric motor works. In an electric motor when a coil is placed between magnetic poles and when electric current flow through the coil starts rotating. This rotation is due to the magnetic field. This procedure act in electric cars. As electric cars are fitted with motors in the wheels when these motors get electric current from batteries and start rotating. The motors are attached to the wheel so the wheel also rotates and electric cars start moving. Here is the step-by-step working mechanism for electric cars.

  • First of all, Energy stored in the form of DC is converted into AC.

  • Secondly, when we press the pedal or accelerate the car, we increase the frequency of AC which changes the speed of the car.

  • As the motor is connected with wheels using a shaft so motor rotates the wheels and the car start moving.

  • Now, we have to stop moving the car, we press the brake pedal. When we press the brake, the process of deceleration starts. The deceleration also produces power which is sent back to the battery for recharging

Different Parts of Electric cars

These cars are used for the same purpose for which we use traditional IC-powered cars. However, there is a difference in some of the components between electric cars and ICpowered cars. The major difference is between the source of power and energy. Traditional cars are based on Engines that work with the help of fuel as a source of energy but in electric cars, there is no engine and no fuel. Here is a list of all the components an Electric Car has.

Sr. No. Components of Electric Car
1 Electric Motors to power the electric car
2 Batteries as the source of energy
3 Battery Charger for recharging
4 Transmission setup for speed management ( optional)

All the above components are very essential for an electric car. Moreover, for luxury, we can add features and components according to our choice.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Electric Cars

Electric cars are based on new technology and also this innovation is developing. However, we can see from the last three or four years the advancement in this field is quite impressive and successful. Yet, there are some drawbacks to this electric form of transportation. Let’s have a look at the advantages and disadvantages of electric cars in the below table.

Advantages Disadvantages
Electric cars are eco-friendly as these cars do not emit any gas. As EVs are under development so these are somewhat expensive.
No Noise Pollution as electric cars has no engine to produce sound. Motors are very quiet. Mostly electric cars from the medium segment provide an unsatisfactory traveling range on a single charge.
These can work with a renewable source of energy like solar energy, wind energy, etc. Moreover, electric cars take too long intervals for charging.
For environmental protection, the government provides subsidies on these vehicles on purchasing new ones. Limitations of Charging points. Some small towns and villages have no charging stations.
These are also pocket friendly due to low-maintenance costs. Slow speed and low power. If we pay the same amount on IC-powered cars we get enormously high bHP with thrilling speed


Electric cars are a very good idea to decrease the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Also, these will reduce noise pollution. Moreover, with low maintenance costs, everyone can afford these cars for daily transportation.


Q1. Why do we use Lithium-ion batteries in Electric Vehicles?

Ans. Lithium-ion batteries are always preferred for electricity storage because they are good in high-temperature performance. Also, due to the high density of lithium, it provides a high power-to-weight ratio means we can store more power in less weight. So, due to less weight, it becomes transportation friendly.

Q2. What are Hybrid Electric Vehicles?

Ans. Hybrid Electric vehicles can be defined as a vehicle that can be powered by both motor and an internal combustion engine. Such types of vehicles are best in today's era because electric charging stations are very few so we cannot rely on a Battery Electric vehicle in case of emergency.

Q3. What is the reason for the dumped success of Electric cars?

Ans. There are a few reasons that make electric cars less popular.

  • Low driving range

  • High Buying price

  • Limited Charging Stations

Q4. What is the average lifespan of a battery in Electric cars?

Ans. The life span of a battery depends on how frequent its charging and discharging cycle is. However, on average a Lithium-ion battery works well for about 9 to 10 years.

Q5. What is a Fuel cell vehicle?

Ans. A Fuel Cell Vehicle is also an electricity-powered vehicle. In this vehicle, we do not put batteries for energy storage but we produce electricity on the chassis of the vehicle with the reaction of Hydrogen, Oxygen and a catalyst is used to promote reaction easily. The reaction produces electricity and power the vehicle.