Eco Feminism


Feminism is quite a popular term, but Eco Feminism is something new. It arises from the combination of environmentalism and Feminism. Ecofeminism was brought into existence by French Feminist Françoise d’Eaubonne in 1974. It is believed that both women and nature are dominated by patriarchy. Ecofeminist believes that both works of women and nature are undermined by male-dominant society. It is considered that the earth is sacred, and it serves humanity and reproduces valuable life like a woman. So women have more attachment to nature than men.

Origins of Ecofeminism

Ecofeminism is hailed as the third wave of feminism. During the late 1970s, this movement arouse through conferences and workshops in the US. It was believed that both nature and women were subdued by the previous historical ideas. Both women and nature are groundless, and disorganised, whereas men are organised and ordered. They both are suppressed by masculine dominance. This old hierarchy has created a dominance of patriarchy in the environment and that led to the exploitation of both nature and women.

Ecofeminist Rosemary Ruether one of the founders of ecofeminism asserts that women must acknowledge their work to suppress the dominant nature of men and for liberty. She insisted feminists and environmentalists work together to end the old patriarchy.

At the end of 1980s the ecofeminism grew quickly and become a popular movement. Scholars wrote theories, and the theory of feminist Ynestra king become popular in this context.

Feminist Ynestra’s article “What is Ecofeminism” was published in The Nation, Where she challenged the American's work on belief, where nature is used ruthlessly and put down women. This led to the development of ecofeminism.

Gorkaazk, Ekofeminismo logo bat, CC0 1.0

Radical Ecofeminism and Cultural Ecofeminism

Radical and Cultural Ecofeminism are two distinct thoughts of ecofeminism.

Radical Ecofeminism

Radical ecofeminist states that a dominant masculine society equates both women and the environment and suppress both. To empower both ecofeminists believed to separate women and the environment. Ecofeminists believed that women and the environment are linked with negative attributes while men are old guards. These attributes exploit women and the environment as cheap toil and asset.

Cultural Ecofeminism

Cultural ecofeminism empowers the link between nature and women. They believe that women are closer to the environment and they both have qualities of nurturing, and reproduction. Women have more sensitivity towards nature. This nature of women must be rewarded by society. Women are more spiritual than men, and she helps redeem the spirituality of nature.

Some feminists believe that ecofeminism can generate gender stereotypes and enhance leverage. Some feminists believe to emphasise environmental religion while some belief to commemorate modern nature's-worship.

Ecofeminism Future

So many women and feminists were not contented by the limit of the movement of ecofeminism. The reason for the failure is the success of the ecofeminism movement was their way of living in developed countries degrading the lifestyle of developing countries and nature.

  • Ecofeminism really should be developed to acknowledge the effect of class, sexuality, origin, and subgroups. Women play different roles in their communities, spirituality, and culture, their role as mothers or caretakers initiates their kind of ecofeminism.

  • Ecofeminists felt heterosexual prejudice against homosexual women.

  • Ecofeminism should also emphasise the role of women against domination, class, Gender, and race.

  • Ecofeminists believe that they must work on the development of theories and steps that acknowledge the hurdles innate in a hierarchical and patriarchal system.

  • They also believed in solving the problem non-violently, and by proclamation.


Ecofeminism emerged as the third wave of feminism. It is a movement that felt the environmental change, and social and gender equality more deeply, these are dominated by patriarchy. Ecofeminists believe that women are more concerned about environmental issues than men. They both are suppressed and dominated by masculine dominance in society. Ecofeminism has many branches spiritual ecofeminism, materialist ecofeminism and nature ecofeminism, transformative ecofeminism. All ecofeminists believe that human beings are connected to nature like animals, plants, and communities. It is an idea of perspective and feelings and important to take action and make changes in the values, hierarchy, and patriarchy.


Q1. What criticises ecofeminism?

Ans. Biehl was criticised for promoting gender stereotypes, that feminists do not want. Cecille Jackson 1993 criticised ecofeminism for not considering difference exists due to class and ethnicity.

Q2. What is transformative ecofeminism?

Ans. This ecofeminist believes that women can transform their connection with nature and culture. They believe ecofeminism is inherent in women's feminine virtue in the role of mother, and relationship with nature, and it did not be reactionary. She needs to take political action if her work and self and relationship with nature are not valued.

Q3. What is spiritual Ecofeminism?

Ans. Spiritual ecofeminism says that ecofeminist draws strength from nature’s spirituality, they move towards worship. Patriarchal religion imposed several norms and values that deviate from women from nature and Goddess worship. So, women need to go back to nature and get involved with nature and worship. It will help nature, women, humans, and society.

Updated on: 27-Feb-2023


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