# Diamagnetic Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic

## Introduction

It can be stated in the context of the differentiation that, Diamagnetism is the magnetism type which forms at the opposite of external magnetic field and has a feeble repulsion with magnets. Ferromagnetism, is the magnetism in substances that form along the direction of external field of magnets and remain even if the magnetic field is removed. Paramagnetism is also determined as one of the types of magnesium in substances which also form along in same direction to external magnetic field and gets disappeared when the magnetic field is removed.

## What is Magnetic susceptibility?

The dimensionless proportionality constant which generally provides an indication of the magnetization degrees of materials is determined as the magnetic susceptibility. This indication of magnetization degrees is always provided in response to the applied field of magnets. This phenomenon occurs due to the interaction between nuclei and electrons in an atom with their eternal magnetic field (Xu et al. 2021).

A material’s magnetic susceptibility is usually denoted by Xm. Xm is equivalent to the ratio of M denoting the magnetization within the substance to the strength, H of its external magnetic field. The formula of magnetic susceptibility can be written in the form:

$\mathrm{X_m = M/H}$

### The theory of Magnetism

This magnetism theory was discovered by Nikola Tesla, in the year 1883. While conducting experiments on generators he discovered a rotating magnetic field and that is the main principle of alternating current. According to the theory of magnetism, it can be stated that if a magnetic rod is cut into small pieces then every piece will have a magnetic quality with an S and N pole (Zhang et al. 2021).

A magnet is generally made of a number of tiny magnets that are lining up with N poles pointing in same direction. The free poles of these tiny magnets will have repulsion at the ending point

### Magnetic susceptibility of materials

Figure 1: Paramagnetism

• Paramagnetism − The type of magnetism in certain substances that get attracted weakly towards the externally applied magnetic field is denoted as Paramagnetism. Here, internally induced magnetic fields are produced in the same direction as magnetic fields (Nde-ed, 2021). Paramagnetism has magnetic permeability which is a little greater than 1 and has positive magnetic susceptibility.

• Figure 2: Diamagnetism

• Diamagnetism − This is the very weak form of magnetism that gets induced by the orbital change in the motion of electrons because of an external magnetic field. Diamagnetism is not permanent and can persist in presence of an external field only. Some Diamagnetic materials are glass, silver, gold, NACL, copper, water, and marble.

• Figure 3: Ferromagnetism

• Ferromagnetism − This is the strongest form of magnetism that gets easily magnetized in the external magnetic field. Ferromagnetism, occurs mainly in some rare elements found on the earth and also in gadolinium (Biswal et al. 2018). Some Ferromagnetic materials are nickel, iron, cobalt, and other alloys that have more than 1 of these elements. It remains even if externally applied magnetic field is removed

Paramagnetic, Ferromagnetic, and Diamagnetic materials: Differentiation

Properties Paramagnetic Ferromagnetic Diamagnetic
Effect of magnet Feeble attraction with magnets. Strong attraction with magnets. Feeble repulsion with magnets.
States This material can be gas, liquid, or solid in nature. Solid in nature. They can be liquid, gas, or solid in nature.
Non-uniform Field: Behaviour They move from lower to higher fields. Move from lower field to higher field. Moves from higher field to the lower field.
Temperature effects When the temperature rises the paramagnetic substance turns into diamagnetic (Biswal et al. 2018). The substance which is ferromagnetic turns into paramagnetic above curie point. There is no effect of temperature occurring in diamagnetic substances.
Susceptibility Than unit the susceptibility is higher and positive. Susceptibility here is positive and very high. Susceptibility is slightly less than unit and is negative.
External magnetic Field: Behavior Induction lines density is slightly larger than the density of magnetic intensity. The density of the induction lines in this material is higher than the magnetic intensity density. Induction lines density is slightly less than the magnetic intensity density (Xu et al. 2021).
Permeability This material has a higher permeability than the unit. Very high permeability is there. Permeability is light less than unit.

Table 1: Variations found in Paramagnetic, Ferromagnetic, and Diamagnetic materials

## Conclusion

Ferromagnetism, Diamagnetism, and Paramagnetism are mainly denoted by the state of the substance and how they are responding to their magnetic fields. There are various differences between these substances. In Paramagnetic and Ferromagnetic substances there are effects of temperature but in the case of Diamagnetic substances there are no temperature effects. Magnetic Susceptibility is positive and higher in Paramagnetic and Ferromagnetic but negative and lower in Diamagnetic substance. The theory mainly highlights the breaking of magnets into tiny magnets, demagnetization, and limiting the magnetic strength. The magnetism of a substance can be destroyed by heating, hammering, and even by utilizing reduced alternating current by wrapping a coil around the magnet.

### FAQs

Q1. What are the 2 major theories of magnetism?

Ferrimagnetisms and Ferromagnetism are the 2 theories that occur when magnetic moments line up below Curie temperature. The magnetic moments line up in magnetic material spontaneously to develop net magnetization.

Q2. What do you mean by retention of magnetism?

When the external magnetic field gets removed the Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic substances’ magnetization gets disappeared. Ferromagnetic substances can retain magnetization on the removal of an external magnetic field.

Q3. What is materials behaviour found in an external magnetic field?

In the external field of magnet, Paramagnetic and Ferromagnetic substances have the alignment of their magnetic field in same direction as applied magnetic field. In the case of Diamagnetic substances alignment of their magnetic field can be found in opposite direction to applied magnetic field.

Q4. What are the differences between Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic materials?

Diamagnetic substances do not have a net magnetic moment, but Paramagnetic substances have atoms having their own magnetic moment. Diamagnetic substances can move from lower to higher regions and Paramagnetic substances move from higher to lower regions.

Tutorialspoint

Simply Easy Learning