Destruction Caused Cyclones



The pattern of a cyclone’s circulation varies from different hemispheres. In the northern hemisphere, the direction of a cyclone is anticlockwise. In the southern hemisphere, a cyclone rotates clockwise. The types of destruction can also be separated based on the affected areas’ conditions.

What Are Cyclones?

According to meteorology, a large-scale air mass is considered a cyclone. This air mass is found to rotate based on a centre at a very low atmospheric pressure. A cyclone is a part of a weather system in which the wind looks to rotate inwardly in a particular area (Chen et al. 2019). At the centre of a cyclone, the pressure remains low.

Cause of cyclones

In understanding the destruction, caused by cyclones, the reason behind the formation of a cyclone is needed to be known. On some sea surfaces, the temperature is found to be warm and this leads to forming a cyclone. Another important reason behind forming a cyclone is the effects of Coriolis force that results in forming a low-pressure zone.

Figure 1: Coriolis effects on cyclone

Instability in the surrounding atmosphere leads to a cyclone. At a certain time the range of humidity increases. In the middle to the lower level of the atmosphere, an intense impact of this increased humidity is fallen. The wind in low areas is also sheared vertically which causes to form a cyclone as well (Heidari et al. 2020). Low-level disturbances and preexisting distractions in the natural atmosphere are also important reasons behind a cyclone.

Types of cyclones

As per the analysis of geological teams, cyclones can be divided into several parts. The main three types of cyclones are there namely tropical, extra tropical cyclones, and tornadoes.

  • Tropical cyclones: In a tropical cyclone no front is seen. This type of cyclone is mainly a cyclone that rotates within a low-pressure weather system. An organized type of thunderstorm is associated with tropical cyclones. This type of cyclone is generally formed over warm ocean waters (Jiang et al. 2018). In some tropical cyclones, the maximum speed of surface wind is nearly 39 mph and these cyclones are regarded as tropical depressions. Tropical cyclones, possessing lower than 39 mph are regarded as tropical storms. A hurricane or typhoons are other types of tropical cyclones that possess 74 mph.

Figure 2: Dynamics of Hurricane Components

  • Extra tropical cyclones: In response to the chronic instability, some cyclones are formed the outside of tropic with low pressure. These types of cyclones are named extra tropical cyclones. The contrast between horizontal temperatures and concentrated regions plays an important role in this type of cyclone.

  • Tornadoes: A tornado is generated by a specific thunderstorm. This cyclone is a rapidly rotating column, associated with air and pressure. A tornado, with a speed of 300 mph can be violent and cause serious destruction.

Types of destruction, caused by cyclones

There are three main types of hazards and destructions that are caused by a cyclone.

  • Primary Hazard: Under primary hazards, heavy rains, strong winds, and storms are listed. An abnormal rise in the sea level temperature is often found to occur. As a result, the low-lying areas of that region faced troubles regarding atmospheric changes. A mere cyclone is a result of these changes in temperature (Juarez-Torres & Puigvert, 2021). In this type of cyclone, strong winds lead to uprooting the trees and affecting communication systems. Huge loss of human life with livestock and property is a dangerous effect of cyclones.

Figure 3: Damages, caused by cyclones

As mentioned above, the education system is also affected by cyclones. Damages in the cultural places also create difficulties for a region in maintaining the previous attractive places and maintaining cultural richness. Loss of income is also found as many business properties are damaged after being hit by a cyclone.

  • Secondary hazard: Under secondary hazards, freshwater flooding, floods, and fire are listed. As a result of cyclones, some of the coastal and non-coastal areas face floods. Flood cause soil erosion that causes harm to a fertile field (Bogdanova et al. 2020). The Wildlife system is also affected by a cyclone as fire, created by cyclone damages wildlife.

  • Tertiary hazards: Dangerous diseases, caused by water contamination and pollution fall under tertiary hazards. After being hit by a cyclone, the price level of a region’s goods rises and the regular lifestyle of normal people gets affected (Ndma, 2022). Lack of management of tertiary hazards can lead a region to face severe challenges in overall maintenance. After a cyclone, education, business system, and food distribution system are also affected.


Large-scale devastations are often found to be caused by cyclones. The dearth of livestock and destruction of houses, buildings, electricity, and transportation system are some of the destruction ranges, caused by a cyclone. In different regions, the destruction range of a cyclone is different. Not only forests but the desert are also destructed and damaged because of cyclones.


Q1. What are the different names of cyclones in different areas?

Ans. In the area around the Eastern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, cyclones are known as Hurricanes. In the region of Southeast Asia, cyclones are named Typhoons. In the region of Indian Oceans and in the Western Pacific area, the name is a cyclone.

Q2. Which type of cyclone is the most devastating among all other cyclones?

Ans. A tropical cyclone is the most devastating type of cyclone. Most of the natural destruction is found to be a result of a tropical cyclone.

Q3. What is the main reason behind a cyclone?

Ans. Low atmospheric pressure is the main reason behind a cyclone. The prone areas, of a cyclone, are warm and moist air around the ocean.

Q4. What are the most destructive effects of a tropical cyclone?

Ans. A tropical cyclone results in bringing heavy rain, tornadoes, and strong wind. The intensity of the cyclone is dependent on the factors in which the location of the cyclone is included.

Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47