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Define neurotransmitters and state the difference between neurotransmitters and hormones.
Neurotransmitters are chemical signals that are needed for your body to work. Their job is to carry chemical signals (called "messages") from one nerve cell to the next target cell.
Animals produce both hormones and neurotransmitters as chemical signaling molecules.
The difference between neurotransmitters and hormones is as follows:
|Neurotransmitters are proteins.||Hormones can be composed of proteins, lipids, or compounds containing cholesterol.|
|Neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic gap by the terminal of an activated presynaptic nerve cell, thereby transferring a nerve signal to its surrounding postsynaptic nerve cell.||Hormones are produced in endocrine glands and released into the bloodstream, where their targets of action are located at a distance from their source.|
|Neurotransmitters are present only in animals.||Hormones are present in both, plants and animals.|
|Neurotransmitters belong to the nervous system.||Hormones belong to the endocrine system.|
|Neurotransmitters respond rapidly, typically within milliseconds.||Hormones require a few minutes to several days to produce a response.|
|Examples of neurotransmitters are serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, glutamate, aspartate, glycine, nitrogen oxide, and carbon monoxide.||Examples of hormones include oxytocin, cortisol, testosterone, and estrogen in animals, and abscisic acid, cytokines, and gibberellins in plants.|
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