Concept of Conflicts

Conflict is a common theme widely discussed and analyzed in various fields, such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, and political science. Conflict is when two or more parties have opposing interests or goals and cannot reach a mutually acceptable solution. Conflict can occur in various forms and settings, including interpersonal relationships, organizational dynamics, and larger-scale political or international relations.

One of the critical aspects of the conflict is that it can have both positive and negative effects on individuals and organizations. On the one hand, conflict can lead to greater creativity, problem-solving, innovation, and the opportunity for personal and organizational growth. On the other hand, conflict can also lead to adverse outcomes such as decreased motivation, decreased trust, and increased aggression and hostility. Understanding the concept of conflict and learning practical conflict resolution skills can help individuals and organizations manage disputes constructively and productively.

The Nature of Conflict

Conflict arises when individuals or groups perceive that their interests are incompatible. This can be due to various factors, including competition for limited resources, differing values or beliefs, and conflicting goals or objectives. Conflict can take many forms, including disagreements, disputes, and fights. Conflict can take many forms, including interpersonal, organizational, and societal.

Conflict Categories

The subjectivist and objectivist conflict approaches have often been the focus of research into the causes and types of conflict. The objectivist perspective assumes that the objectives in question can be compatible and searches for the source of conflict in society's social and political makeup and structure. On the other hand, the subjectivist point of view places a greater emphasis on the apparent conflict. The most significant factor affecting the severity of the argument and the dynamics of the conflict phases is the degree of incompatibility.

Once a dispute starts, it grows, its dynamics and intensity altering the stages and directions it takes. In this regard, it is critical to comprehend the many types of conflict and how they evolve since doing so may help predict what can happen next and how to handle the conflict more effectively. As a result, there are two primary conflicts: violent and non-violent disputes. The primary flaw in conflict literature is that most research and data focus on violent conflicts, especially wars. Therefore, there needs to be more knowledge or thorough research on non-violent confrontations. We will try to categorise the two as follows for clarity −

Non-Violent Conflicts

Conflict does not always imply there will be no violence. It is possible to pursue opposing objectives without using force or violence. When the conflict is already underway, this refers to the parties' refusal to use violent measures in their battle to come to terms with their incompatibilities about matters that have national significance for them. Parties do not physically harm one another. Nevertheless, for there to be non-violent conflict, at least one of the people involved must be aware of it and acknowledge its existence. It should also be emphasised that every confrontation begins with a non-violent phase before escalating violently. A situation in which at least two parties, or their agents, attempt to pursue what they perceive to be mutually incompatible goals by weakening, directly or indirectly, each other's capacity to accomplish those goals is known as a manifest conflict process.

Violent Conflicts

When parties stop trying to achieve their objectives by peaceful means and instead strive to control, harm, or obstruct the capacity of the other parties to pursue their interests, a conflict enters a violent phase. For a non-violent disagreement to turn violent, some requirements must be unmet on a fundamental or practical level: When some fundamental wants or demands are profoundly unmet, violence as a reaction is developed. Political conflict analysis defines a violent conflict as involving force, property destruction, and human casualties. Thresholds for combat-related human losses are frequently used to categorise violent conflict, especially in terms of war.

Types of Conflict

Conflicts can be classified into five primary types as −

Personal Conflict

Personal conflict refers to the interpersonal difficulties or disputes that arise between individuals in their relationships, such as family, friends, romantic partners, or coworkers. These conflicts can stem from various sources, including differences in opinion, personality, values, goals, or communication styles. Personal conflicts can range from minor disagreements to major disputes that can cause significant stress, anxiety, or emotional pain.

Effective communication and active listening skills are crucial to resolving personal conflicts. When engaging in conflict resolution, it is essential to remain calm and respectful, to understand the other person's perspective, and to work together to find a solution that works for both parties. Other strategies for resolving personal conflict include compromising, compromising, or seeking the help of a neutral third party, such as a mediator or therapist.

It is important to remember that personal conflict is a normal part of human relationships and that everyone experiences conflict at some point in their lives. However, if a personal conflict becomes too challenging to resolve, seeking outside support can help you find a solution that works for both parties and promotes healing and growth in the relationship.

Interpersonal Conflict

Interpersonal conflict occurs between individuals and is often characterized by disagreements over personal issues such as values, beliefs, and habits. These conflicts can range from minor disagreements to major confrontations and can have a significant impact on relationships.

Organizational Conflict

Organizational conflict refers to tensions and disagreements that arise within organizations. This type of conflict can result from differences in goals, authority, resources, or values. Organizational conflicts can arise between departments, teams, or employees, negatively impacting productivity and morale.

Organizational or workplace conflict is a disagreement or clash between individuals or groups within an organizational setting. This type of conflict can arise due to various factors, including differences in values, beliefs, and opinions, competition for resources or opportunities, or power imbalances within the organization. Organizational conflict can have a significant impact on the functioning of the organization, as it can lead to decreased motivation, decreased productivity, and increased turnover.

Societal Conflict

Societal conflict refers to tensions and disagreements between different societal groups, such as ethnic or religious groups, economic classes, or political ideologies. Societal conflicts can result in severe and lasting consequences, including violence, discrimination, and oppression.

Global Conflict

Global conflict refers to conflicts between nations, regions, or international organizations and can have far-reaching consequences for people, communities, and the world. Global conflicts can take many forms, including wars, political unrest, economic competition, or environmental disasters. They often arise from differences in political ideology, cultural differences, resource scarcity, or territorial disputes. The effects of global conflict can be devastating, leading to loss of life, displacement of populations, economic instability, and environmental degradation. The world has seen numerous devastating global conflicts throughout history, such as World War I and World War II, the Cold War, and ongoing conflicts in the Middle East.

Resolving global conflicts typically involves diplomatic negotiations, international treaties, and peacekeeping missions. Multilateral organizations such as the United Nations play a critical role in promoting peace and resolving global conflicts. The international community also works to address the root causes of global conflicts, such as poverty, inequality, and political oppression, through development initiatives and humanitarian aid.

Individuals, governments, and organizations must work together to promote peace and prevent global conflict. This includes supporting conflict resolution efforts, promoting dialogue and understanding between nations, and advocating for human rights and justice. We can build a more peaceful and just world by working together.


Conflict is an inevitable part of human interaction and can arise from various causes. While conflict can have negative consequences, it can also lead to positive outcomes, such as increased creativity and improved understanding of different perspectives. Understanding the concept of conflict and learning effective conflict-resolution strategies can help individuals and organizations manage disputes constructively and productively. Conflict is an inevitable part of human interaction and can arise in many forms, including interpersonal, organizational, and societal. The causes of conflict can be complex and may involve differences in values, beliefs, interests, goals, and resources.