Chronology BC and CE

Social ScienceWorld History


Since the first beginnings of human existence, the chronology of Indian history is punctuated by wars, religious births, and the collapse of major empires. The chronology of Indian history is divided into three sections: ancient history, mediaeval history, and contemporary history.

  • The chronology of ancient Indian history gives an overview of the nation's early civilizations, agriculture, and civilisation. Pre-Aryans, Indo-Aryans, Greeks, Hunas, Scythians, and other persons invaded India and made it their homeland throughout this time.

  • The chronology of Indian mediaeval history begins in the ninth century, when political turmoil erupted in several parts of the nation. Important dynasties developed during this time, including the Khaljis, Tughlaqa, and Mughals.

  • On the timeline of Indian modern history, the arrival of Europeans one by one and the beginning of large-scale commerce are highlighted. Between the time of British control and the moment of independence, the modern history timeline contains a series of historical events.

Indian History Timeline

The following are the stages of Indian history in detail:

Period of Ancient India: Prehistoric to AD 700

  • Homo erectus was active on the Indian subcontinent 20 lakh years ago, while Homo sapiens has been there since 70,000 BC.

  • It is possible that the early people of the Indian subcontinent were tribal:

    • North-eastern Nagas

    • East-Indian Santhals

    • Central India's Bhils

    • Central India's Gonds

    • South Indian Todas

  • Munda and Gondvi are Austric, pre-Dravidian languages spoken by these people.

  • Aryans and Dravidians are thought to be later immigrants to the subcontinent.

Images Coming soon

Period of the Palaeolithic (2 million BC – 10,000 BC)

  • The Kaladgi Basin, Bhimbetka, Hunsgi, Kurnool Caves, and Narmada Valley are also important Palaeolithic sites.

  • Tools were made of limestone.

  • Fire was discovered in this era.

Period of the Mesolithic (10,000–8,000 BC)

  • Brahmagiri, Narmada, and Gujarat all had microliths.

  • Animal domestication and cattle raising began at this time.

  • There was a peculiar climate change at this time.

The Neolithic Period (8000 BC – 2000 BC)

  • During this time, the wheel was invented and agriculture began.

  • Inamgaon is a Neolithic hamlet from the early period.

  • Brahmagiri and Adichanallur are the two most important megalithic sites.

  • Sites of Neolithic Importance:

    • Hallur (Andhra Pradesh)

    • Mahagara, India (Uttar Pradesh)

    • Paiyampalli (Andhra Pradesh)

    • Maski

    • Sangana Kaller

    • Burzahom (Kashmir)

    • Utnor

    • Chirand (Bihar)

    • Hading Daojali (Tripura and Assam)

    • Gufkral (Kashmir)

    • Koldihwa (Uttar Pradesh)

    • Kodekal

    • Mehrgarh (Pakistan)

    • Takkala Kota

The Indus Valley Civilization (2700 BC - 1900 BC)

Around 3300 BC, this was established. It was active between 2700 and 1900 BC (Mature Indus Valley Civilisation). It began to dwindle around 1900 BC and eventually vanished around 1400 BC.

Images Coming soon

Period of the Chalcolithic (4000 BC – 1500 BC)

It is also recognized as the Copper Age and is included in the Bronze Age.

The Iron Age (1500 BC - 200 BC)

  • Aryan Invasion and the Vedic Period

  • The Vedas, Hinduism's foundational texts, were written throughout this time period.

  • Buddhism and Jainism are gaining popularity.

  • Mahajanapadas

  • Bimbisara of Haryanka, Magadha Empire Kula

  • Kalasoka, Sishunaga dynasty (Kakavarnin)

  • Mahapadma-Nanda and Dhana-Nanda ruled the Nanda kingdom.

  • Alexander 327 BC (arrival of the Greeks)

Empire of Maurya (324-187 BC)

  • Chandragupta 298–272 BCE

  • Bindusara 268–232 BCE

  • Ashoka (181-71 BC)

  • Mauryan Kingdoms were followed by

    • Sunga (322–298) BCE

    • Kanva (71-27BC)

    • Satavahanas (235-100BC)

    • Parthians, Indo-Greeks (180BC-45AD)

    • Sakas (90BC-150AD)

    • The Kushanas (78AD)

The Sangam Period (300 BC–300 AD)

  • Chola

  • Cheras

  • Pandyas

Gupta Empire ruled (300 - 800 AD)

  • This was an ancient Indian empire.

  • Indian Napoleon was Samudra Gupta of the Gupta Empire.

Contemporary Gupta or Post-Gupta

  • The decline of the Gupta Empire, Magadha, and its capital, Pataliputra.

  • Following the fall of the Gupta Empire, many key power centres emerged.

    • Vardhana Dynasty

    • Mukharis

    • Hunas

    • Pushyabhutis

    • Gaudas

    • Varman.

    • Maitrakas

  • Later on, the Rajputs, Senas, and Chauhans succeeded.

Mediaeval India (700 AD – 1857 AD)

  • The Tripartite conflict was a battle for power and control of the Gangetic valley's core region.

  • Prathiharas, Palas, and Rashtrakutas fought in a tripartite war (AD 800-1200).

  • In AD 712, ambush of Muhammed Bin Kassim

  • Furtherance of Sufism

  • Succeeded by:

    • Muhammad Ghazni (AD 1000-27)

    • Muhammad Ghori (AD 1175-1206)

  • Vijayanagara and Bhamini were the two most powerful South Indian kingdoms throughout Mediaeval India.

Delhi Sultanate (1206 AD – 1526 AD)

  • Slave Dynasty

  • Khilji Dynasty

  • Tuglaq Dynasty

  • Sayyid Dynasty

  • Lodi Dynasty

Mughals (AD 1526 – AD 1857)

  • Mughals

  • Later Mughals

  • Advent of Europeans

Modern India (AD 1857-1991)

  • 1857: First War of Indian Independence

  • 1885: Indian National Congress

  • 1906: Muslim League

  • 1920: Non-Cooperation Movement

  • Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930

  • Quit India Movement of 1942.

  • 1947: India Partition

  • 1946 – 1950: India's Constitutional Development

  • 1962: China conflict

  • 1965-India-Pakistan war

  • 1971-Bangladesh formation

  • 1991-New Economic Policy


Q1. Write a short note on Delhi Sultanate.

Ans. The Delhi Sultanate, a Muslim empire, was the most powerful state in north India from the early 1200s through the 1500s. The state was known as a sultanate as it was ruled by a sultan. Turkish Muslims built the Delhi Sultanate, which reigned for many centuries from what is now Delhi. The kings constructed a series of towns in the Delhi region to operate as their capital over time.

Q2. Describe the economic prosperity and social condition during the Gupta Empire.

Economically, the Gupta period was prosperous. The Gupta empire's power centre, according to Chinese traveller Fa-hien Magadh, was full of cities and wealthy people.

  • The Guptas issued the most gold coins in ancient India, which were referred to as 'dinaras' in their inscriptions.

  • Gold and silver coins were minted in large quantities, which is a typical sign of economic strength.

  • Both within and beyond the country, trade and business thrived. Sea exports included silk, cotton, spices, medicine, priceless jewels, pearls, valuable metals, and steel. However, the Gupta period did not see advances in social development; for example, the number of chandalas (untouchables) rose throughout the Gupta period, and their situation deteriorated.

  • The first practice of Sati was also recorded during the Gupta period.

Q3. Give two major reasons for Jainism and Buddhism's emergence

Ans. The following are two major factors that contributed to the growth of Jainism and Buddhism:

  • Religious corruption – Priests extorted money from ordinary people in the pretext of rites. Brahmins had grown in power, and it was necessary to reduce their grip on society.

  • Rigid caste system — The rigid caste system imposed several limitations and prevented social mobility. A liberal religion was desperately needed.

Q4. What is the role of the Constitution?

Ans. A nation's, state's, or social group's constitution establishes the government's authorities and responsibilities, as well as guarantees certain rights to its citizens. It's a written document that encapsulates a political or social organisation's regulations. It is a way for organising a state or society and distributing sovereign authority.

Q5. What was the catalyst for the civil disobedience movement?

The Salt Satyagraha was a massive civil disobedience action led by Mahatma Gandhi in response to the British government's salt tariff in India. On March 12, 1930, Gandhi led a large number of people from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a Gujarat coastal hamlet, to breach the salt prohibition by manufacturing salt from saltwater.

Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47