# Chemical properties of Aluminium

ChemistryMaterials: Metals and Non-metals

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13 Lectures 2 hours

## Introduction

The availability of aluminium in a pure state is very rate due to its chemical properties. Additionally, it is one of the most abundant compounds on the Earth due to its availability of it as a compound state with other materials. “Alum and aluminium oxide” are the two most frequent particles discovered as the chemical properties of this material. This tutorial helps understand the usefulness of aluminium in the different prospective and shares knowledge regards the chemical properties of aluminium.

The electron number of the aluminium is 13, which refers to that; it has exactly 13 protons in the nucleus of an atom of aluminium. The most useful characteristic of aluminium is it can combine with over 270 materials found in nature. Due to the softness and durability of this material, it has enormous use cases. Aluminium is not a magnetic material and it is not resistant to corrosion. In the right state, aluminium can dissolve in the water. The aluminium comes as a member of the "Boron family" which has the electronic configuration of "${1s^2\:2s^2\: 2p^6 \:3s^2\: 3p^1}$" (Ponnusamy et al. 2020).

With the inclusion of the "group 13" material, aluminium can form an ionic of the "A13+ ions".

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One of the major characteristics of aluminium is, that it has a very less amount of density in the chemical reaction that is making this element soft and durable and possible to use in "multiple formations". The chemical and biological application of aluminium is constructing it as multi-perspective material on Earth. The benefits of using this material can help in manufacturing different items, such as cans, parts for aeroplanes and rockets, kitchen utensils, foils, and different other materials that have usefulness in the different industries. Different forms of aluminium have applications in manufacturing cars, watches, bicycles, railway engines, and other materials (Matmatch, 2022).

The usefulness of the material is due to its lightweight and it is possible to form the desired shapes easily with the aluminium.

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Figure 2: "Properties and application of Aluminium"

## Chemical Properties of Aluminium

The following illustrations are regarding the first chemical properties of Aluminium: The reaction of aluminium with air is depending on the oxide layer that is to protect the coating of the aluminium from wiped out due to the attack made by the air. If the "oxide layer" gets hurt, the vulnerability of the Aluminium metal can be witnessed which reacts with oxygen and benefits in the appearance of "amphoteric oxide".

Another reaction with the acids can make the formula of the hydrogen gas. The chemical properties of the aluminium are the reaction with another component. In this formation, mineral acids are reactive to make the solutions that may have liquid along with releasing H2. The reaction between HCL and Aluminium will also create releasing the hydrogen gas.

The third chemical property of the aluminium material is the formation of a new compound. Oxygen and hydrogen have different chemical properties that can make the items significant in the present circumstances (Mwema et al. 2018).

"Oxygen and Aluminium electro negativity" can construct it feasible for the Aluminium to compose bonds that are covalent and able to react with oxygen. Aluminium reacts to the items that are warm and can create a colourless solution of sodium.

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Figure 3: Chemical properties of Aluminium

The followings are the unique features of the Aluminium that comes under the chemical properties due to the behaviour:

• Aluminium is a material that consists of the "silver type" and includes a bluish colour.

• The melting point of the Aluminium is 660°C.

• Aluminium has a density of "2.708grams/cubic centimetre".

## Application of Aluminium

Different applications of Aluminium are applicable in the different industries to create materials that are intended to be most durable. The availability of aluminium on the Earth is around eight per cent crust in the earth. Different types of metal can form different states of items that can make synthetic materials. Aluminium is one of the stable materials that is found for the construction of different materials. The utilisation of aluminium is not used for the construction of the different materials that are not sustainable as aluminium is not a stable material. Additionally, combinations with other materials such as magnesium, manganese, copper, and silicon are lightweight but create a stable formation (Smith et al. 2018). They are effective in the construction of different materials that are generally used in aeroplanes and these materials are used in distinct classes of transportation.

## Isotopes

"Aluminium has six radioactive isotopes." The naturally occurring isotopes of aluminium refer to the aluminium-27. Isotopes are forming about the formation of a new element. The "mass number" refers to the presentation of the neutrons and protons in an atom's nucleus. Significantly, according to chemistry, the protons determine the characteristic, but the "number of the neutrons in the atom" can vary depending on the number. Different numbers are the reference of an isotope for a material.

## Conclusion

This tutorial highlights the chemical properties of one of the most abundant material presents on the Earth, Aluminium. It has a less amount of density and its durability of it can make the development of the different significant items. Most of the time, the combination of the other material comes useful to create the useful application of Aluminium. Due to modern welfare, the application of aluminium is available in the construction of the different items.

Q1. What is the number of ions available in Aluminium?

The number of ions present in the Aluminium is 13, which seems that Aluminium has 13 electrons and 13 protons in each atom.

Q2. What are the properties of aluminium?

Aluminium has a low density, the conductivity of the material is highly thermal, and it is a non-toxic material.

Q3. What are the possible applications of Aluminium?

The construction of stable and lightweight material refers to the application of aluminium.

In different transportation use cases, aluminium is replacing steel for the property which is effectively stable and lightweight.

## References

### Journals

Ponnusamy, P., Rahman Rashid, R. A., Masood, S. H., Ruan, D., & Palanisamy, S. (2020).

Mechanical properties of SLM-printed aluminium alloys: a review. Materials, 13(19), 4301. Retrieved from: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/13/19/4301/pdf

Smith, S. R., Rafati, R., Haddad, A. S., Cooper, A., & Hamidi, H. (2018). Application of aluminium oxide nanoparticles to enhance rheological and filtration properties of water based muds at HPHT conditions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 537, 361-371. Retrieved from:https://aura.abdn.ac.uk