Chemical Equation


Chemical equations are the general term used in daily chemistry. The chemical equations in chemistry were primarily formulated by Jean Beguin, a French chemist in the year 1615. It is basically displayed theoretically utilising numbers, arrows and other symbols of components of the methods that happen during the reaction in chemistry. Reactants in a chemical equation are joined to form the chemical products. The balanced equations are extremely crucial and occur when the atoms or components' numbers on the side of the reactant are equal to the element's atomic number on the side of the product.

What are chemical equations?

Chemical equations are presented symbolically or worded that may take place when more than one component is combined. The equations chemically are required to be balanced in order to meet all the phenomena including every condition like the law of Conversion of matter.

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Figure 1: Chemical equation

It has immense significance in the creation of certain chemicals as it discusses briefly the names of products, reactants and matter states. The chemical equation provides the data regarding the transformations like state, heat energy, and chemical composition happening in the chemical reaction.

Steps to represent chemical equations and examples

In order to represent any chemical equation, comprehension of the participants is immensely important which are

  • The components are presented and written with symbols instead of the full name.

  • The reactants are also termed substrates which are significantly portrayed on the left side of the equation and are demonstrated as reacting entities.

  • The obtained chemical name or product is placed on the right side. The outcome is generated based on the chemical reaction happening in the components.

  • The arrow ${\rightarrow}$ in-between demonstrates the direction in which the flow of the chemical equation is seen.

  • The coefficients are designed for every symbol in the chemical equation of the corresponding products and reactants. The entities' coefficients are the ultimate value of the entity of stoichiometric number in a chemical reaction.

An instance of a chemical equation for Salt

Sodium chloride or NaCl is also called table salt. It is referred to as the ionic compound with the chemical formula (NaCl). It is represented as the ratio of 1:1 of chloride and sodium ions. Salt is generally utilised as a food preservative and condiment (Bílek et al. 2018). Salt can be formed by combining two extreme reactive components collaboratively such as Chlorine ${(Cl_2)}$ gas and Sodium (Na) metal. The chemical equation for salt is represented as:

$${2Na(s)+Cl_2\rightarrow 2NaCl(s)}$$

Facts about chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is referred to as the interaction which happens between more than one elements to create a new element. For instance, hydrogen and oxygen react with each other to generate a new element called water ${(H_2O)}$. Chemical reactions occur every time without noticing anything.

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Figure 2: Molecular reaction before and after a state of mixture

The food that humans consume goes to the stomach and is mixed up with different chemicals including acidic components for food digestion. Other instances such as wood-burning, iron rusting, car combustion and photosynthesis (Bhatti et al. 2021). Chemical reactions happen due to different molecules of distinct states coming closer together so that bonds chemically are segregated and created.

Significance of chemical reaction

Living organisms are exited on the earth because of chemical reactions. The existence of chemical reactions or equations is enormously essential to human life and experiments (Jyż-Kuroś et al. 2021). Chemical reactions are necessary to comprehend the matter's properties.

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Figure 3: Representation of chemical equation

The chemical features lead to an unknown specimen and illustrate the reaction of different kinds of reactions with each other. Working in the natural world is possible by observing and studying the chemical reactions (Bédard et al. 2018). One of the important discoveries is that fire is also considered the product of easy chemical reactions. The sustainability of moons and other planets can be determined easily with the help of chemical reactions.

Ionic equation: Evaluation

Ionic equations are referred to as the chemical equation in which electrolytes in liquid solution are determined as dissociated ions. This chemical equation is lately distinct from that of simple cases of chemical equations (Ahmed Khan et al. 2020). The electrolytes in this equation are segregated and presented as individual ions when it is theoretically represented in ionic chemical reactions.


$${Chemical\:equation: \:CaCl_2+2AgNO_3\rightarrow Ca(NO_3)_2+2AgCl \downarrow}$$

$${Ionic\:equation:\:Ca_2++2Cl-+2Ag++2NO_3-\rightarrow Ca_2++2NO_3-+2AgCl \downarrow}$$

The ultimate ionic equation from the above equation can be demonstrated as two chloride ions generating from calcium chloride reacting with two cations of silver from silver nitrate, creating a Silver chloride precipitate as the product.

$${2Cl-+2Ag+\rightarrow 2AgCl \downarrow}$$


The equation is mentioned as the statement of the equality of mathematical expressions which have identities and are conditional. There are several formulas for each product in chemistry which have been obtained by certain chemical equations. Chemical equations are balanced as it helps in maintaining the equality of the number of atoms, moles and mass on either side of the reaction's equation. It is the chemical reaction only that helps in turning the food into fuel within the human body. Some of the chemical reactions need energy from yield energy or external sources during the reaction.


Q1. What are the types of chemical equations?

Chemical equations can also be termed chemical reactions. The major four types of chemical reactions include decomposition, Single displacement, reaction of double displacement and synthesis.

Q2. What is a balanced chemical equation?

A balanced chemical equation is defined as the equation for the reaction chemically in which the atomic number for every component in the reaction is similar. The total charge for the equation is similar for both products and reactants.

Q3. What are the restrictions of chemical equations?

Chemical equations are significant for daily life. However, it has certain restrictions. Chemical equations do not claim about kinetics, pressure and temperature of the reaction and reactants and products concentration.

Q4. What are the symbols utilised in denoting physical states in equations?

There are mainly three symbols that are used to symbolise the reacting entities’ physical states. (S) For solid, (l) for liquid and (g) for gas. Another important part is that the aqueous solution for any chemical is displayed as (aq).



Ahmed Khan, R., Murtaza, M., Abdulraheem, A., Kamal, M. S., & Mahmoud, M. (2020). Imidazolium-based ionic liquids as clay swelling inhibitors: mechanism, performance evaluation, and effect of different anions. ACS omega, 5(41), 26682-26696. Retrieved from:

Bédard, A. C., Adamo, A., Aroh, K. C., Russell, M. G., Bedermann, A. A., Torosian, J., ... & Jamison, T. F. (2018). Reconfigurable system for automated optimization of diverse chemical reactions. Science, 361(6408), 1220-1225. Retrieved from:

Bhatti, M. T., Teevno, R. A., & Devi, S. (2021). Teacing Balancing Of Chemical Equations Through Phet Interactive Simulations And Powerpoint Presentation Slide Show Visualisation. Ilkogretim Online, 20(1), 4298-4317. Retrieved from:

Bílek, M., Nodzyńska, M., Kopek-Putała, W., & Zimak-Piekarczyk, P. (2018). Balancing chemical equations using sandwich making computer simulation games as a supporting teaching method. Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 76(6), 779. Retrieved from:

Jyż-Kuroś, D., Zimak-Piekarczyk, P., Kopek-Putała, W., & Nodzyńska-Moroń, M. (2021). Stepping (Designing) the process of pupils’ writing chemical reactions’ equations for other pupils. Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis. Studia ad Didacticam Biologiae Pertinentia, 343(XI), 261-269. Retrieved from:


Opentextbc (2022). About Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations. Retrieved from:[Retrieved on: 27th June 2022]


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Updated on: 13-Oct-2022


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