Characteristics Of Liquids


The liquid form of matter resides between both the solid and gas states. Liquids' properties are determined by their form, temperature variations, volume, and intermolecular attractions. There are 3 states of matter: gas, solid, plus liquid. Each form of matter has unique features. Liquid particles are less dense than solid particles but denser than gas particles. A liquid material switches and becomes a solid upon cooling, while a liquid material switches state and becomes a gas upon heating.

What is the Liquid State?

A liquid is a nearly incompressible substance that adapts to the form of its vessel while retaining constant volume independent of pressure. The volume is maintained if the temperature, as well as pressure, stays consistent. When intermolecular interactions remain, the particles have adequate energy to move about, thus the arrangement is mobile. This suggests that a liquid's shape is governed by its vessel, rather than by the fluid itself. The liquids volume is often higher than that of the comparable solid, with the exception being water.

Characteristics Of Liquids

  • Fluids have no fixed shape, but also might take on the form of the vessel in which they are stored. The volume of liquids is fixed. A hundred millilitres of liquid, for instance, might take the form of a mug or a kettle. This means that the form varies, but the volume stays unchanged.

  • The property of liquids that attracts the same type of liquid particles to one another is known as cohesion. Various sorts of water particles, for instance, are kept together by hydrogen bonds.

  • Adhesion is a fluid property that causes various types of liquid particles to be drawn to one another. The development of dew on plant leaves is one case.

  • The tensile force operating on the top surface of fluids is another property known as surface tension. This characteristic causes a liquid material's surface to withstand external forces. E.g., mercury has significant surface tension.

States of Matter

  • Viscosity is a property of fluids that prevents them from flowing freely. A thin fluid material has a lower viscosity than a thick fluid. E.g., honey has a higher viscosity than $\mathrm{H_2 O}$.

  • At a particular temperature, fluids convert into solids by a procedure termed solidification or even freezing, i.e., the freezing temperature of fluids. Ice production is one instance.

  • At a specific temperature, the boiling temperature of fluids, it transforms into a gas form through a procedure termed evaporation or even vaporization. On heating, in particular, water is converted into water vapour. The normal boiling temperature of a fluid is the boiling temperature under ordinary atmospheric pressure.

  • Whenever a fluid is warmed from underneath, the hot section of the fluid expends, causing the density of the fluid to drop. The fluid rises as well as is replaced by the higher, cooler section of the system. The procedure is repeated until the hot component of the fluid is substituted by the cooler portion of the fluid. This is known as heat transmission via convection in a fluid.

  • When a heated fluid, such as $\mathrm{H_2 O}$, is left at ambient temperature, it starts to cool. This is because of Newton's cooling law. As per the law, the speed of heat loss of fluid is exactly related to the temperature differential between the fluid as well as its surroundings.

Uses of Liquids

  • They are used as coolants, lubricants as well as solvents.

  • Lubricants, like oil, are selected for their flow & viscosity properties that are appropriate for the product's working temperature spectrum. Because of their excellent lubricating qualities, oils are frequently employed in hydraulic systems, engines, metalworking as well as gearboxes.


  • Many fluids are employed as solvents, allowing other fluids or solids to break down. Solutions may be found in a range of applications, such as adhesives, paints, plus sealants.

  • In industries, naphtha but also acetone is widely used to remove tar, oil plus grease from components and equipment. They are essentially water-based solutions.

  • Surfactants are typical ingredients in detergents & soaps. Alcohol and other solvents are frequently utilized as antimicrobials. They can be seen in lasers, cosmetics as well as inks that use aqueous dye. They are utilized in the food sector in operations like vegetable oil processing.


Water exists in three states: gas (vapour), solid (ice) as well as liquid (water). Fluids are a condition of matter that is almost incompressible. When a solid substance is heated beyond its melting temperature & also the pressure exceeds the triple point of the substance, it turns liquid. The contact force between liquid particles is mild compared to the intermolecular interactions in solids. It is, nevertheless, more powerful than that gas.


Q1. What is the Conservation Law?

Ans. It states that matter cannot be generated or destroyed. The concept states that a certain quantifiable attribute cannot shift over time within a single physical process. It encompasses mass, energy, angular momentum, matter, & other concepts. The law states that the quantity of matter normally remains constant, but its form changes. For instance, whenever $\mathrm{H_2 O}$ freezes & produces ice over the period.

Q2.How do you define Intermolecular forces?

Ans. The force that governs the interaction of particles, often molecules, is known as intermolecular force (IMF). It functions as a mediator of attraction or repulsive force among the corresponding molecules, binding them together or apart. Solids, for instance, have the highest intermolecular force, providing them with a rigid shape as well as form, whereas gases have the weakest, providing them with a non-rigid type. Unlike solids, gases have loosely arranged atomic bonds.

Q3. Methane & carbon dioxide has critical temperatures of -81.9 degree Celsius & 31.1 degree Celsius, respectively. Which of these 2 gases has the greater intermolecular force, & explain why?

Ans. It has long been observed that the greater the critical temperature of a gas, the easier it is to liquefy it. This means that the stronger the intermolecular forces of attraction, the simpler it is to compress the gas into a fluid. As a result of its greater critical temperature, carbon dioxide possesses greater intermolecular forces than methane.

Q4. Is there a form of matter that isn't liquid, solid, gas, or plasma?

Ans. Except for the above-mentioned states, there are other states of matter. The fifth state of matter is created by humans and is known as Bose-Einstein Condensates. The mentioned 4 states plus, Fermionic Condensate, Quark-Gluon Plasma as well as Bose-Einstein Condensate are the seven states of matter.

Q5. Write a brief remark about the matter.

Ans. Matter is defined as everything that occupies space but also has mass. It is the foundation of the entire cosmos. It is understood to be made up of atoms, which seem to be the basic fundamental elements of matter. These appear to be believed to give the matter its chemical as well as physical attributes, as well as to provide matter with various states like gases, liquids, & solids. In reality, the attraction force among these atoms is what holds them together, allowing them to form and shape.

Updated on: 06-Apr-2023


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