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Branches of Psychology
We have all heard of psychologists working in different areas of human service. Nevertheless, do we know what each of them entails? The majority of currently accepted definitions of psychology state that it fundamentally studies behavior. An extensive heritage of psychology has its roots in philosophy and other humanities disciplines. The basis of psychology has changed to a "natural" or "hard science" focus in many parts of the world. The acknowledgment of psychology as a science founded on a shared devotion to conceptual clarity, methodological rigor, and the transmission of information is a point of convergence across contemporary psychology. The discipline has had an enormous issue with classification. Psychology is both a natural science and a social science, with the emphasis varied with the branch and theoretical orientation and the intricacy of the subject matter. In psychology, meaningful categorization necessitates significant differences.
Overview of Different Branches of Psychology
Psychology has many branches and each branch defines a specialized field of psychology. So, let’s discuss the major branches of psychology in brief:
Personality psychologists investigate why people behave in particular ways. These psychologists look at how personality traits, including agreeableness, vary between people and how those traits interact to form a personality. Furthermore, personality psychologists investigate how genetic expression impacts personality. Although their primary focus is on research, they can also treat those who suffer from personality problems.
Patients with abnormal behavior or thought structures are the focus of abnormal psychology. Mental diseases like bulimia or schizophrenia are examples of abnormal behavior, defined as behavior that does not conform to cultural values. Researchers in this branch of psychology seek to comprehend what makes people behave atypically, whether these behaviors have a biological basis (nature) or are taught through circumstances (nurture).
Behavioral psychologists are those who research how the mind influences later conduct. Psychologists specializing in behavioral problems offer advice, diagnose, and treat patients. Behavioral psychologists research how people develop habits and how the mind affects a physical reaction.
Clinical psychology is the practice of psychologists treating people with mental disorders in person and holistically. Before diagnosing a patient and formulating a treatment plan to address the symptoms of a psychological disorder, clinical psychologists engage with clients via inspections, discussions, and testing. They probe a patient's feelings and experiences throughout several encounters to shed light on the illness. Clinical psychologists' primary responsibilities are assessing, diagnosing, and treating psychological issues and mental illness. The majority of clinical psychologists specialize in one or even more sub-specialties, such as alcohol and drug abuse, attention deficit disorders, anxiety disorders like panic disorder and irrational fears, head trauma, severe pain, disordered eating, academic functioning, setback, grief, and bereavement, personality issues, sleep disturbances, suicidality, or obsessive-compulsive disorders.
They are involved in assessing, observing, and managing people with brain abnormalities by conducting exhaustive non-drug-based testing and performing a thorough evaluation. Epilepsy, brain trauma, neurological conditions, strokes, drug and alcohol addictions, learning difficulties, attention deficit disorders, dementia, and mental illnesses like schizophrenia are among the conditions that patients may experience.
Cognitive psychologists are interested in mental processes and research how humans acquire, analyze, and store knowledge in their brains. These psychologists conduct experiments and research to investigate memory, perception, and learning. They strive to fully comprehend the mind and address cognitive disorders like learning difficulties, memory loss, and others.
Patients undergoing emotionally taxing circumstances brought on by physical or psychological issues may be encouraged to consult a counseling therapist who handles patients in such situations. Counselors for grieving and marriage would be included in counseling psychology. They evaluate patients before providing specific advice on enhancing their well-being and reducing stress. They also assist with partnerships, well-being, employment, pleasure, healthcare, and emergency preparedness for individuals, couples, families, and groups. They help people recuperate from eating disorders and manage stress, sorrow and loss, severe pain, depression, and rage.
For Couples − Enhance parenting and effective communication, control tension, and prevent divorce.
For Families − Address concerns that arise in dysfunctional families and offer assistance with miscommunications.
For Businesses − Assist in hiring new employees, assess and carry out new training initiatives, and assist in managing conflict
Tackle the personal, societal, institutional, and ecological elements that influence the emotional well-being of societies by working with residents and governmental organizations. They undertake community-based research, evaluate community needs, plan projects, offer to counsel, and collaborate with others to remove social barriers. For instance, we might work with immigrant groups to help them settle in a new country by setting up contacts with people from a similar ethnic background, language assistance, housing, etc.
By examining human development from birth through old age, developmental psychologists have improved our understanding of how people evolve throughout their lifetimes, both mentally and physically. Psychologists primarily examine the biological advancement of the body, intellectual development, and emotional development, among other study topics. Developmental psychologists evaluate and diagnose their patients' conditions to treat various problems, including child developmental delays. A psychologist may recommend therapy to assist the kid keep pace or just monitoring to observe how the youngster progresses on his or her own when any of these abnormalities are frequent.
Educational psychologists research how knowledge is processed and assimilated and learning strategies. To better understand how to enhance the educational process, apply psychological human developmental theories development to the research on these processes. They are interested in the growth and education of people throughout their lives.
They assist families of younger children with developmental, learning, attachment, challenging behavior, and other issues. In contrast, they might assist educators, parents, and kids with issues including school avoidance, learning challenges, low self-esteem, bullying, and other behavioral issues.
Experimental psychologists study fundamental psychological processes like perception, memory, reasoning, and attention. It is debatable if many psychologists qualify as experimental, given how heavily this discipline is influenced by investigation. However, experimental psychologists' only objective is to study and document either animal or human behavior. Their research frequently supports work in other fields and develops a more general conclusion.
Forensic psychologists do work at the nexus of psychology and the legal system. They frequently do analyses and studies that direct court cases. This may entail determining a defendant's capacity to stand trial or educating law enforcement officials and emergency personnel on dealing with offenders and crime sites. Some forensic psychologists work on risk evaluation, which is the objective estimation of whether a person could pose a risk in the future, even though many of them are employed by the legal system.
Health psychologists investigate how and why people get sick, and this has evolved. These psychologists assist individuals in making decisions that benefit their health and the welfare of their households, communities, and the wider world. Their patients include those with substance addiction problems and genetic diseases.
Human Factors Psychology
Research is used by human factors psychologists to enhance customer items, telecommunications, technology, and practically every other system that involves human interaction. By clearer grasping audience perceptions and how they engage with products and technology, they hope to develop more secure and productive solutions. These psychologists research and advise businesses on providing a secure workplace for workers.
Organizational and Industrial Psychology
I/O psychology, often known as industrial-organizational psychology, studies how human behavior affects businesses and organizations. I/O psychologists assess a work environment and provide a plan for the employees' best performance and work-life balance. I/O psychologists are experts in planning, carrying out studies on workplace environments, and researching decision-making theories.
Social psychologists work to comprehend unique behaviors and personalities in the setting of social interaction. In this field of psychology, psychologists look at how society affects how people behave and the circumstances under which they act. Most social psychologists study and keep track of stereotyping, bias, and group dynamics. Social psychologists have contributed to a greater comprehension of societal attitudes, propensity to integrate into a group, and social choice across time.
Athletes that work with sports psychologists perform at their best. This subcategory of psychologists focuses on how sports impact the psychology and vice versa. Sports psychologists consult with players, guardians, trainers, and others in practical situations about injuries and recovery, fostering constructive communication and teamwork. Enhance mental skills, handle stress and performance anxiety, foster teamwork, and help people and teams participating in competitive and recreational sports develop their full potential and accomplish their objectives.
Psychology is a broad field that caters to many other subsystems within it. It is practically impossible to remove psychology from any aspect of our life, and such is its power. It is the fundamental essence of human behavior and thus applies to a multitude of disciplines.
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