## What are various inbuilt methods used to access constants database in scipy.constants() module? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 24-Nov-2021 08:27:48

It is difficult to remember the values, units, and precisions of all physical constants. That’s the reason scipy.constants() have four methods with the help of which we can access physical constants. Let’s understand these methods along with examples −scipy.constants.value(key)− This method will give us the value in physical constants indexed ... Read More

## How can we use various mathematical and physical constants in scipy library? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 24-Nov-2021 08:17:26

To implement Scientific or Mathematical calculation, we need various universal constants. For example, the formula to calculate area of a circle is pi*r*r where Pi is a constant having value = 3.141592653. There are various other scenarios like this where we need constants. It would really be helpful if we ... Read More

## What is the difference between scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans() and scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans2() methods? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 24-Nov-2021 08:11:58

The scipy.cluster.vq()has two methods to implement k-means clustering namely kmeans() and kmeans2(). There is a significant difference in the working of both these methods. Let us understand it −scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans(obs, k_or_guess, iter=20, thresh=1e-05, check_finite=True)− The kmeans() method forms k clusters by performing k-means algorithm on a set of observation vectors. To ... Read More

## What is scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans2()method? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 24-Nov-2021 08:10:55

scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans2(data, k, iter=10, thresh=1e-05, minit='random', missing='warn', check_finite=True)− The kmeans2() method classify a set of observations vectors into k clusters by performing k-means algorithm. To check for convergence, the kmeans2() method does not use threshold values. It has additional parameters to decide the method of initialization of centroids, to handle empty ... Read More

## What is scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans()method? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 24-Nov-2021 08:07:49

The scipy.cluster.vq.kmeans(obs, k_or_guess, iter=20, thresh=1e- 05, check_finite=True)method forms k clusters by performing a k-means algorithm on a set of observation vectors. To determine the stability of the centroids, this method uses a threshold value to compare the change in average Euclidean distance between the observations and their corresponding centroids. The ... Read More

## Which function of scipy.cluster.vq module is used to assign codes from a code book to observations? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 24-Nov-2021 08:02:10

Before implementing k-means algorithms, the scipy.cluster.vq.vq(obs, code_book, check_finite = True) used to assign codes to each observation from a code book. It first compares each observation vector in the ‘M’ by ‘N’ obs array with the centroids in the code book. Once compared, it assigns the code to the closest ... Read More

## Which function of scipy.cluster.vq module is used to normalize observations on each feature dimension? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 23-Nov-2021 13:23:51

Before implementing k-means algorithms, it is always beneficial to rescale each feature dimension of the observation set. The function scipy.cluster.vq.whiten(obs, check_finite = True)is used for this purpose. To give it unit variance, it divides each feature dimension of the observation by its standard deviation (SD).ParametersBelow are given the parameters of ... Read More

## How can we call the documentation for NumPy and SciPy? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 23-Nov-2021 13:15:28

If you are unsure of how to use a particular function or variable in NumPy and SciPy, you can call for the documentation with the help of ‘?’. In Jupyter notebook and IPython shell we can call up the documentation as follows −ExampleIf you want to know NumPy sin () ... Read More

## Which SciPy package is used to implement Clustering? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 23-Nov-2021 12:49:59

Clustering is one among the most useful unsupervised ML methods. It is used to find the relationship patterns and similarity among the input data samples. After finding these patterns, unsupervised algorithm clusters the data samples having similarities into groups as illustrated in the diagram below −Anomaly detection, image segmentation, medical ... Read More

## To work with SciPy, do I need to import the NumPy functions explicitly? Gaurav Kumar

Updated on 23-Nov-2021 12:39:42

When SciPy is imported, you do not need to explicitly import the NumPy functions because by default all the NumPy functions are available through SciPy namespace. But as SciPy is built upon the NumPy arrays, we must need to know the basics of NumPy.As most parts of linear algebra deals ... Read More