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Animal Husbandry - Poultry Farming & Management
Husbandry, derived from the word husband, means managing carefully used regarding a household or a farm, but today it is used in agriculture or cultivation of plants as well as animals.
Animal Husbandry is a largely scaled business where animals are sheltered, bred, and reared, cared for, in specially built regions for profitable purposes, such as the animals which provide us food and other products.
Animal husbandry includes livestock, poultry farming, fisheries and beekeeping.Poultry farming is a type of livestock breeding for domestic birds such as ducks, and chickens to produce food which mainly includes meat and eggs.
To maximise the production efficiency with minimum investments various techniques are used which refer to poultry management.
There are four types of animal husbandry practices based on the type of animal.
Cattle Farming or Dairy Farm
Fish Farming or Pisciculture
Beekeeping or Apiculture
Dairy Farm Management
Dairy Farm is the breeding of animals, mainly cattle, for milk and its products for human consumption. Dairy Management deals with techniques that increase yields and improve quality as well. Important measures to improve dairy farms are:
Selection of good varieties with high yield potential.
Animals must be well-bred, well-watered and kept disease-free.
Providing good quality and quantity feed.
Maintain a hygienic environment.
Regular visits to the veterinarian are mandatory.
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Poultry Farm Management
Poultry Farm Management are the animal husbandry practices or production techniques that help to maximise the efficiency of production.
Poultry farming is a type of livestock breeding for poultry such as ducks and chickens, primarily for food products including meat and eggs.
Various techniques related to poultry farming are used to maximise production efficiency with minimal investment termed Poultry Farm Management
Actions to Improve Poultry Farms:
Disease-free and appropriate variety selection.
Appropriate and safe operating conditions
Appropriate food and water
You must adhere to hygiene and health care.
It is the technique of selective mating of animals of desired genetic traits to save and improve those traits in future progeny. For livestock, this includes estimating an individual's genetic value concerning characteristics such as growth rate and yield of products such as eggs, milk and meat. Technically, different mating schemes for animals fall into two major categories: Inbreeding and Outbreeding.
The classification depends on the closeness of biological relationships between partners.
When animals of the same breed are bred, referring to the mating of more closely related individuals within the same breed for up to 6 generations is termed inbreeding.
Inbreeding can result in harmful genes that are recessive when both parents are expressed in their offspring.
Outbreeding is mating between unrelated or distant individuals of the same species resulting in hybrid progeny.
Hybrid populations typically exhibit more variation than inbreeds and have a higher potential to adapt to environmental changes.
Outbreeding increases the number of heterozygotes, so that unfavourable recessive traits tend to be masked by dominant alleles.
Difference between Animal Husbandry and Animal Breeding
The agricultural practice of breeding and rearing livestock is animal husbandry which deals with the breeding and care of livestock including cattle, cows, buffaloes, horses, goats, sheep, etc., that are useful to humans for profit. The genetic qualities and behaviour, are considered to be beneficial to humans.
Whereas, breeding animals are selectively mating animals with the desired genetic traits to maintain or enhance those traits in future generations. For animal husbandry, this includes estimating an individual's genetic value for traits such as growth rate and yield of products such as eggs, milk, and meat in connection with the production of offspring. Hybrids are mainly used for the beef market. It involves raising cows to produce calves for sale as beef or as a substitute.
Impact of Animal Husbandry on the Environment
The conversion of forests to farmlands and ranches is one of the leading causes of deforestation around the world.
Greenhouse gas emissions due to transportation, excretion and others
Depletion of the water level due to high usage of fresh water.
Livestock leaves huge carbon dioxide emissions and has a very high global warming potential.
It puts a heavy burden on the environment and natural resources such as air, water and forests, which will have a great impact on the earth's ecosystems and biodiversity.
Benefits of Poultry Farming as a Business
Poultry farming is advantageous as a business thus, many farmers tend to invest in this business. People generally start poultry farms to produce eggs and meat and earn high incomes from these products. Around the world, billions of chickens are raised as an excellent source of food from eggs and meat.
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Requirement of low capital: The main advantage of poultry farming is that it does not require large initial capital, just basic capital. Also, most poultry is inexpensive to start breeding.
No big space needed: Poultry farming does not require a lot of space unless commercially produced. With one or more huts or cages, one can easily raise a few birds in the yard initially.
Higher returns in a short span: Poultry farming on a commercial basis guarantees a high return on investment in a short time. Few birds, such as broilers, take less time to mature and give a profit. Poultry products are not very expensive.
No need for advanced maintenance: The structure of the poultry farm does not require advanced maintenance. Also, by observing proper hygiene and care, poultry diseases and illnesses can be minimised. Some poultry, such as quails and turkeys, are less ill.
Licence is not required: It should be noted that in most cases no license is required. Because almost all types of poultry are native species. Applying for a permit from the regulatory authority is also easy for poultry.
Animal husbandry is the practice of livestock care and breeding animals by the application of scientific principles. The increasing demand for animal foods and products in terms of both quality and quantity was covered by good management practices that needed to be followed, these practices include (i) farm and livestock management, and (ii) animal breeding.
1. What is the importance of animal husbandry?
Ans: It is given as follows-
Contribute to a country's GDP by providing employment and transportation of products.
Better living environment for animals as well as humans.
Usage of animal excrement thus maintaining a clean and hygienic ecosystem
2. What are the main features of animal husbandry management?
Ans: The main features of animal husbandry are:
Caring of animals
Adequate feeding of animals
Fresh drinking water for animals
Disease protection and health maintenance of livestock
Clean and Hygienic environment or shelter where animals can live.
3. Name a few types of poultry seen in both small and large poultry systems.
Ans. Ducks, chickens, geese, fowls, and turkeys are a few poultry birds seen on farms.
4. What are the health benefits of the consumption of poultry?
Ans. Proteins, vitamins like riboflavin, thiamin, niacin, pyridoxine, vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, and iron are obtained from the consumption of poultry products.
5. Name a few preventive measures to prevent poultry diseases.
Ans. The following measures can be used to prevent diseases in poultry-
Control of parasites
Identification and treatment of sick birds
Following routine safety procedures by handlers
Separation of multi-age flocks.
Advances in Poultry Welfare. (2017). United Kingdom: Elsevier Science.
Chauhan, H. V. S. (1996). Poultry Diseases, Diagnosis And Treatment. India: New Age International.
Hand Book Of Poultry Farming And Feed Formulations. (2007). India: Engineers India Research Institute.
The Complete Technology Book on Dairy & Poultry Industries With Farming and Processing (2nd Revised Edition). (2012). (n.p.): NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES.
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