Agriculture Seeds Selection Sowing

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Introduction

Agriculture is the art of cultivation of crops and animal farming. Seed plays a major role in the production of desirable foods to fulfil the increasing demand of the population. It is a small fertilised part of a plant, made up of embryo, endosperm, and seed coat that can grow into new individual plants by seed germination. The good quality of seeds can reduce replanting, increase uniformity, and promote early growth of crops, therefore the essential step in agriculture is the selection of good quality seeds. The production of high-yielding and quality crops is maximised by applying agricultural practices.

Selection and Sowing of seeds

Plant growth generally depends on the quality of seeds. Seed selection can improve the better production of crops by selecting efficient seeds. There are various diseases in plants that can be transmitted through seeds, therefore obtaining seeds from healthy plants is essential for agriculture. Sowing is the process of scattering selected seeds into the initially prepared soil. The following features of seeds are necessary during the selection of seeds for sowing:

  • Seeds should be free from infection.

  • They should have a high germinating capability.

  • A particular seed should not be mixed with other seeds or weeds.

  • They should give desired crop production.

  • The broken or crushed seeds should be avoided.

  • They should be disease-resistant.

  • They should have the ability to tolerate adverse conditions.

Steps Needed For Agriculture Practice

Agricultural practices are a set of principles that are applied in the agricultural area to facilitate farming for obtaining better agricultural products.

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Preparation of Proper Soil

The soil preparation needs for the agricultural land to be fit and ready for crop production. It is essential for seed germination that can aid in the proper cultivation

of crops. There are three steps in the preparation of soil:

Tilling/Ploughing

The process of loosening and moving the soil to develop proper aeration and bring the nutrient-rich soil to the top of the land is called ploughing. It is carried out by using a plough, hoe or cultivator.

Levelling

The soil contains lumps and it is unevenly distributed, therefore it is uniformly distributed and levelled by the process called levelling. It also protects the land from soil erosion.

Manuring

Plants require proper nutrients for the growth and production of fruits and seeds. Manuring is the process of application of manure to agricultural land. Manure is a decayed form of organic matter and it is used to boost the soil by supplying nutrients for crop production.

Sowing of Seeds or Planting

The process of scattering or planting seeds is called sowing. Seeds need to be sown at an appropriate depth with adequate amounts of water. The proper time interval and distance for sowing are important to reach desired cultivation. There are some methods for sowing as follows:

Traditional method

A funnel is used for sowing that is packed with seeds and these are moving through the pipes with sharpened edges. The edge of the pipe enters into the soil and the seeds are scattered.

Broadcasting

Broadcasting is a manual or mechanical process of sowing seeds by scattering them in the soil. However, this method is not recommended for the cultivation of high-yielding crops because it decreases production by uneven dispersal of seeds.

Dibbling

Dibbling is the process of dropping the seeds in the seedbed at the proper space and then being covered with soil. A dibbler is a long, pointed tool used to create holes in the soil for the sowing.

Seed drill

A seed drill is usually used for sowing seeds with the support of tractors. It can sow the seeds at an appropriate distance and depth and it is important to assure the soil is covered after sowing.

Transplantation

The seeds are first sowed in a small garden and then the seedlings are shifted to the cultivable land. Therefore, this is a time-consuming process.

Proper and Timely Irrigation

Proper irrigation is needed for agriculture because over-irrigation can damage the soil by water-logging that prevents the absorption of nutrients and minerals from the soil. The consecutive irrigation requires intervals because the farmer should supply an adequate amount of water. Therefore, it is important to follow proper and timely irrigation, and the sources for irrigation include dams, lakes, wells, canals, ponds, etc.

Supply of Proper Manure and Fertilisers

Manure and fertilisers are added to fulfil the requirement of nutrients for plant growth. Manure is obtained from decayed animal and plant wastes, therefore it is an eco-friendly compound and also increases soil fertility. Fertilisers are commercially developed inorganic compounds such as ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate, and NPK and the excess application of fertiliser makes the soil to be harmful for cultivation.

Protection of Crops/Plants From Weeds

Weeds are unwanted plants that grow in a cultivated area along with desirable crops and make the plant harmful. It decreases crop yielding and serves as a host plant for pests and diseases. These are manually removed or by weedicides such as Naphthalene acetic acid.

Harvesting Process

Harvesting is the process of cutting and gathering crops after their maturation. It can be done manually in small-scale harvesting and mechanically in large-scale harvesting. It is followed by threshing and winnowing. Threshing is the process of loosening the grains from husks and the grains are separated using the wind which is called winnowing.

Storing Process

The last step of agricultural practices is storage. The collected grains are stored in a food depot for selling and future use. The store has cleaned, dried, and fumigated to preserve the grains from pests and rodents.

Conclusion

Seed quality is important for producing high-yielding crops. Therefore seed selection plays a major role in agriculture. Soil is prepared for proper cultivation by ploughing, levelling, and manuring. The seeds are sown in the soil and it requires the time interval and distance to get an adequate amount of water and nutrients. There are various sources for irrigation and it requires proper and timely management. Plant growth is promoted by the application of manures and fertilisers and it improves soil fertility. The unwanted growth in plants is removed by weedicides because it reduces the yielding. The cutting and collection of crops are called harvesting followed by threshing and winnowing. These are finally stored in a depot for selling and future purposes.

FAQs

1. What is the difference between manure and fertiliser?

Manure is an organic compound that is obtained from the decomposition of plant and animal wastes whereas fertiliser is an inorganic compound such as ammonium sulphate.

2. What are agricultural practices?

A set of principles used to facilitate farming is known as agricultural practices. It includes soil preparation, seed selection, sowing, application of manure, fertilisers, weedicides, proper irrigation, harvesting, and storage.

3. How are the seeds sowing for crop production?

The selected seeds are sowed at a deep surface with an adequate amount of water. It is done manually or mechanically by broadcasting, dibbling, seed drilling, and transplantation.

4. What are threshing and winnowing?

Threshing is the process of loosening harvested grains by hand-beaten or machines and winnowing is the process of separation of grains by using winds.

5. What is the importance of seed selection in agriculture?

Seeds are essential for the production of new individual plants. The selection of good quality seeds can develop the desired crops that reduce replanting and improves the yielding of crops.

References

List of Agricultural Practices | Steps and Importance - CropForLife. Corpforlife.com. (2022). Retrieved 27 May 2022, from https://cropforlife.com

Seed Selection Depends upon the Following Factors. Biology Discussion. (2022). Retrieved 27 May 2022, from https://www.biologydiscussion.com

Seed selection is the most important factor of yield. Digitrac.in. (2022). Retrieved 27 May 2022, from https://www.digitrac.in

raja
Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47

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