Administrative Tribunals in India

Administrative tribunals are specialized bodies that are established to resolve disputes and make decisions in specific areas of law. They provide an accessible and less formal forum for individuals and organizations to have their cases heard and resolved.

What is Objective of Administrative Tribunal?

The administrative tribunal handles disagreements relating to a person's hiring requirements for any public service. In other words, disputes related to government departments and their employees. The legislation, rules, and regulations of the Central Government and State Governments control the many forms of administrative tribunals. One of the most essential features of the tribunal is, it provides in-expensive relief swiftly to the government employees in respect to their grievances related to service matter.

Categories of Administrative Tribunals?

The following are the main categories of administrative tribunals −

  • Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)

  • State Administrative Tribunals (SAT)

There is one additional sort of administrative tribunal, known as the Joint Administrative Tribunal (JAT), which acts as the administrative tribunal for such States when two or more States request a joint tribunal.

Some other types of tribunals are −

  • Election Commission (EC)

  • Customs and Excise Revenue Appellate Tribunal (CERAT)

  • Foreign Exchange Regulation Appellate Board (FERAB)

  • Industrial Tribunal

  • Income Tax Appellate Tribunal

  • Railway Rates Tribunal

  • Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission (MRTPC)

Central Administrative Tribunal

It has the authority to handle service issues involving workers of the Central Government, any Union Territory, a local government, any entity controlled by the Government of India, or a corporation that is owned or under the control of the Central Government.

The CAT was established on November 1st, 1985. It was established in accordance with Article 323A of the Indian Constitution. This Part gives the Tribunal its authority, power, and jurisdiction. It was created as a result of the 42nd Constitutional Amendment.

Current number of CAT

At present, it has 17 regular benches, 15 of which are located at the High Courts' major locations while the other two are in Jaipur and Lucknow. Circuit sittings are also held by these Benches at other High Court locations.

Composition of CAT

The President appoints the Tribunal's Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and other members. Also, the President names members of the judiciary, but only after conferring with the Chief Justice of India. After consultation with the governor of the relevant state, the President names the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, and other members of the State Tribunal.

Advantages of Central Administrative Tribunal

The Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT) is a specialized body that deals with service-related disputes of employees of the central government and its various departments. Some benefits of CAT are −

  • Speedy justice − One of CAT's main advantages is that it gives central government personnel quick access to justice. The tribunal has a predetermined timetable for adjudicating cases, which guarantees that the concerns of the employees are resolved promptly.

  • Expertise − Members of CAT are specialists in service issues and have in-depth knowledge of administrative law. This makes sure that the issues of the employees are heard and decided by those who are qualified to do so.

  • Cost-effective − CAT is a less expensive alternative to other legal options for resolving disputes because of the low tribunal fees. This makes it simpler for workers to seek justice without having to spend a lot of money.

  • Accessibility − CAT is available to employees around the nation since it has benches spread across several states. This guarantees that workers won't need to travel far to get their complaints heard.

  • Fairness and impartiality − Because of the independence of its members and their lack of influence from the central government or its agencies, the CAT assures justice and impartiality in the adjudication of disputes. This guarantees that the cases of the employees are heard impartially and objectively.

  • Alternative to courts − For resolving issues relating to services, CAT offers an alternative to courts. By doing this, the judicial system is not overworked and issues involving employees are dealt with more quickly.

In general, CAT offers central government workers a fast, affordable, and accessible method of resolving service-related problems.

State Administrative Tribunal

Article 323B of the Indian Constitution serves as a guidance for the State Administrative Tribunal. The authority can also set up tribunals for a number of other issues, including land reform, taxation, industrial labour, foreign exchange, the cap on urban property, food, rent, tenancy rights, and elections to the national and state legislatures, according to the document.

Under Article 323A, the State Administrative Tribunals (SAT) were created with the intention of speeding up the settlement of disputes regarding the service of State Government Officials and Workers. State Administrative Tribunals (SATs) can be established by the Union government at the request of the corresponding state governments under the Administrative Tribunals Act of 1985.


Section 4 of the Administrative Tribunals Act of 1985 provides details on the bench and tribunal makeup. A chairman, vice-chairman, judicial members, and administrative members are required for each tribunal. There must be one judge and one administrative person on each bench.

Advantages of state Administrative Tribunal

State Administrative Tribunals (SATs) provide several benefits, including −

  • Cost-effective dispute resolution − SATs offer a quicker and less expensive alternative to court processes for settling disputes. This makes it simpler for people and organisations to obtain justice without having to pay a high price.

  • Expertise − SATs are made up of independent, seasoned individuals with expertise in particular areas of law. As these members are frequently chosen based on their competence, they are equipped with the information needed to decide intelligently on complicated legal issues.

  • Flexibility − SATs have the freedom to settle issues swiftly and effectively by using informal processes like mediation. They are also better equipped than the courts to adjust to changes in the law and address new problems quickly.

  • Accessibility − As SATs are frequently throughout the respective state, those who live outside of big cities may more easily access them. Also, they have the technological ability to conduct hearings remotely, which can increase accessibility.

  • Transparency − SATs work transparently, with choices and the justifications behind them being posted online. As a result, there is increased responsibility and confidence in the tribunal's decision-making process on the part of the general public.

  • Improved efficiencies − SATs seek to swiftly and effectively settle conflicts, which lessens the backlog of cases in the judicial system. As a result, disagreements may be settled more quickly and at a lower cost to all parties.


Even while the tribunals have increased the pace at which rulings on administration and taxes are delivered, they continue to face a number of difficulties. Inadequacies in the infrastructure of the tribunal properties, a lack of judicial oversight of the tribunals, and the issue of favouritism in the choice of chairpersons might all be on the list of difficulties.

Administrative tribunals play a crucial role in the legal system by providing specialized justice and resolving disputes in a less formal and more accessible manner. The categories of administrative tribunals offer individuals and organizations an opportunity to have their cases heard and resolved by experts in their respective fields.

Frequently Asked Question

Q1. What is a regulatory tribunal?

Ans. A regulatory tribunal is a type of administrative tribunal that oversees and regulates various industries and sectors, such as telecommunications, utilities, and financial services. They have the power to set rules and standards, issue licenses, and enforce regulations.

Q2. What is an appeal tribunal?

Ans. An appeal tribunal is a type of administrative tribunal that provides an avenue for individuals or organizations to appeal decisions made by government agencies or other tribunals. Examples include social security appeals tribunals and immigration appeals tribunals.

Q3. What is an adjudicative tribunal?

Ans. An adjudicative tribunal is a type of administrative tribunal that makes decisions and resolves disputes related to specific areas of law, such as employment, housing, or human rights. They have the power to hear evidence, make findings of fact, and apply the law to the facts of the case.

Updated on: 08-May-2023


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