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Achievement Motivation and Economic Development
Finding people who could be most suited for spotting and taking advantage of business opportunities in the marketplace may be made easier with research on the motivational characteristics of entrepreneurs. For instance, schools, career counselors, investors, government agencies, and other organizations may use an individual's characteristics and motivations to identify those who may be well-suited to engage in and thrive in entrepreneurial endeavors. There are still a lot of unanswered questions surrounding the influence motivation, and personality traits have on entrepreneurial activity, despite the potential significance of individual qualities. This study aims to determine the relationship between the demand for achievement, the decision to pursue entrepreneurship as a career, and performance in entrepreneurial roles.
What is Achievement Motivation?
In the 1950s, the idea of needing achievement was developed. High-NAch individuals, according to McClelland and his coworkers, are more likely than low-NAch individuals to engage in active and creative tasks that call for future planning and include personal accountability for task outcomes. According to McClelland (1961), high-nAch individuals should also favor tasks that require skill and effort, offer precise performance feedback, and are of moderate difficulty or risk.
Additionally, he contended that entrepreneurial roles are more likely than other positions to have these qualities. According to Holland's (1985) vocation choice model, people are most likely to be drawn to occupations that offer work environments that are compatible with their personalities. Holland further asserted that performance and career satisfaction are better when personality traits and work environment characteristics mesh well. Therefore, as McClelland mentioned, it appears plausible that those high in achievement motivation should be drawn to and perform successfully in entrepreneurship.
People with a strong sense of accomplishment are drawn to tasks that require advanced knowledge and abilities. Typically, they are drawn to the activity itself and the potential for mastery in how they carry out their duties. Extrinsic stimuli like monetary rewards and public adulation are interpreted as evidence of their ability and skill. As stated by McClelland, Goals of moderate difficulty are typically pursued by those with high achievement motivation. Their accomplishment may be due to chance if the objective is exceptionally tough. On the other hand, if the objective is simple enough to obtain, people will be happier with their success.
The desire to exert influence, take charge of others, and rise to a certain social or professional level are all tied to power motivation.
People with strong affiliation motivation place a high value on their social contacts. They prioritize interpersonal interactions and are typically good team players. People with high-performance motivation want pleasant interpersonal interactions.
Economic development and achievement motivation
In the fields of economic psychology and the general relationship between culture and economic development, The Achieving Society was widely considered a significant advancement. His measurement of N achievement and the approach to relating it to economic success are important areas for criticism. Rubin's criticism focuses on the analytical approach. Given the variety of occupations and social groups, he first draws attention to McClelland's simplicity in attempting to develop a single metric for motivational level. For future economic growth, the motivation level of small but significant groups may be significantly higher than the motivation level of the total population.
Furthermore, in Rubin's view, it is arrogant to attribute to a single personality trait the complexity of economic progress. As a result, he doubts the validity of the connections and their contribution to formulating a theory of social change. McClelland, in Rubin's opinion, strives to accomplish too much. As a result, he doubts the validity of the connections and their contribution to formulating a theory of social change.
In response to Katona's criticism of the increased number of entrepreneurs in a culture, McClelland contends that these individuals link N achievement and economic growth. McClelland is far more effective at establishing the connection between N achievement and economic growth than between N achievement and entrepreneurs or entrepreneurs and economic progress, according to Katona (1962). In other words, McClelland's overly universalistic ideas are the fundamental issue Katona raises. They contend that because there is a lack of high-growth potential enterprises in underdeveloped nations, a high level of entrepreneurial activity may only sometimes result in greater economic growth.
Arguments related to "shopkeepers" or "refugees" are used to encourage entrepreneurship in these nations. This suggests that starting a business is not motivated by anticipated opportunities but rather is a "last resort" for (self-)employment. This may result in a negligible or even adverse impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth.
On the other hand, entrepreneurship is heavily influenced by (anticipated) opportunities in high-growth industries in industrialized nations; therefore, entrepreneurship will positively impact economic growth in these nations. Both publications provide limited empirical support for this hypothesis based on anticipated opportunities; however, self-employment is primarily employed as a "last alternative" in both papers. This may result in a negligible or even adverse impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth.
On the other side, entrepreneurship is mostly fueled by (anticipated) prospects in sectors with great potential for growth in industrialized nations. Therefore, entrepreneurship will positively impact economic growth in these nations. Both studies provide (limited) empirical evidence supporting this idea, including opportunities in sectors with significant potential for growth. Therefore, entrepreneurship will positively impact economic growth in these nations. Both publications provide (albeit rather limited) empirical support for this assertion.
Achievement motivation was proposed by McClelland and states that people with high achievement motivation levels are more likely than people with low achievement motivation levels to engage in active and creative tasks that require future planning and contain personal accountability for task outcomes. High- achievement motivation persons should also select tasks that demand aptitude and effort, provide specific performance feedback, and are of moderate complexity or risk, according to McClelland (1961). On the other hand, in industrialized countries, entrepreneurship is mostly stimulated by (expected) opportunities in industries with significant growth potential.
Therefore, entrepreneurship will have a favorable effect on these countries economic progress. Both studies offer (limited) empirical support for this claim, including opportunities in industries with high development potential. Therefore, entrepreneurship will have a favorable effect on these countries economic progress.
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