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(a) What Provides Nutrition to Human Sperms? State The Genetic Constitution of a Sperm. (b) Mention The Chromosome Pair Present in The Zygote Which Determines the Sex of (i) A Female Child, And (ii) A Male Child.
Part A: What Provides Nutrition to Human Sperms?
The human body is a complex and intricate system that is made up of several organs and tissues, all of which work together to ensure optimal functioning. One of the essential components of the human body is the male reproductive system, which is responsible for producing and delivering sperm to fertilize the female egg.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell, and it is responsible for fertilizing the female egg. However, like all cells in the human body, sperm requires proper nutrition to function optimally. The nutrients required by sperm are essential for their development, maturation, and motility.
The nutrients required by sperm are obtained through the seminal plasma, a fluid that is produced by the accessory glands of the male reproductive system. The seminal plasma contains various nutrients such as fructose, amino acids, citric acid, and enzymes that provide the necessary energy and nutrition to the sperm.
Fructose, a type of sugar, is one of the most critical nutrients in the seminal plasma. It is responsible for providing the energy needed for the sperm to move and swim towards the female egg. Fructose is produced by the seminal vesicles, one of the accessory glands that produce seminal fluid.
Amino acids are also crucial nutrients required by sperm. They are the building blocks of proteins, which are essential for the development and maturation of sperm. Amino acids are produced by the prostate gland, another accessory gland that produces seminal fluid.
Citric acid is another nutrient present in the seminal plasma. It is produced by the prostate gland and is responsible for maintaining the pH balance of the seminal fluid. The pH balance is essential for the survival and motility of the sperm.
Enzymes present in the seminal plasma are also critical for the function and development of sperm. The enzymes help in breaking down the proteins and other complex molecules present in the female reproductive tract. This breakdown allows the sperm to move more efficiently towards the egg for fertilization.
The genetic constitution of a sperm includes the genetic material, DNA, and various proteins that are essential for the fertilization and development of the embryo. The DNA in the sperm contains all the genetic information required for the development of a human being.
The DNA in the sperm is tightly packed and condensed, making it resistant to damage and ensuring that it is passed on to the developing embryo. The DNA contains genes that determine various characteristics of the developing embryo, including physical appearance, personality, and intelligence.
In addition to the DNA, the sperm also contains various proteins that play a critical role in the fertilization and development of the embryo. These proteins are responsible for providing the necessary nutrition and energy to the developing embryo.
Overall, the seminal plasma and the genetic constitution of the sperm are critical components that provide the necessary nutrition and energy required for the development, maturation, and motility of the sperm. The nutrients obtained from the seminal plasma and the genetic material in the sperm play a critical role in the fertilization and development of the embryo.
Part B: Chromosome Pair Present in the Zygote that Determines the Sex of a Child
The sex of a child is determined by the chromosome pair present in the zygote. The zygote is formed when the sperm fertilizes the egg, and it contains all the genetic material required for the development of the embryo.
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with one pair being responsible for determining the sex of the child. The chromosome pair responsible for determining the sex of the child is known as the sex chromosomes.
There are two types of sex chromosomes, X and Y. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines the sex of the child.
sex chromosome from the father determines the sex of the child. If the sperm carries an X chromosome, the child will be female (XX), while if the sperm carries a Y chromosome, the child will be male (XY).
The X chromosome contains several genes that are essential for the development of the female reproductive system and other female characteristics. In contrast, the Y chromosome contains several genes that are essential for the development of the male reproductive system and other male characteristics.
One of the critical genes present on the Y chromosome is the SRY gene, which is responsible for the development of the testes in males. The testes produce the male hormone testosterone, which is responsible for the development of the male reproductive system and other male characteristics such as a deeper voice, facial hair, and increased muscle mass.
In females, both X chromosomes are active, while in males, only one X chromosome is active, and the other is inactive. The inactive X chromosome is called a Barr body and is visible under a microscope. The process of inactivating one X chromosome is known as X-inactivation and ensures that males and females have an equal amount of genetic material from the X chromosome.
In conclusion, the sex of a child is determined by the sex chromosome pair present in the zygote. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The presence or absence of the Y chromosome determines the sex of the child. The sex chromosomes contain several genes that are essential for the development of the male and female reproductive systems and other male and female characteristics.
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