A poem about trade (class NCERT)

Social ScienceAncient Indian History

Introduction

Purchasing and selling things from one location to another or from one country to another is trade. South India was known for its gold, rare stones, and pepper 2000 years ago. Due to its tremendous worth, black pepper was referred to as "black gold" throughout the Roman Empire. Many of these commodities would be delivered to Rome by ships or caravans if they selected the land route. In southern India, archaeologists discovered Roman gold coins, proving that trade took place. The items traded from southern India must have been paid in gold coins by the Romans.

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Many scholars, leaders, and pilgrims join traders as they travel to remote regions in caravans and ships. This shows that it was also about cultural interchange, religious engagement, and the movement of various other items from one location to another.

Role of China in Trading

Chinese Buddhist pilgrims were the most well-known visitors to India during this period. Around 1600 BCE, Fa Xian, Xuan Zang, and I-Qing arrived, followed by Xuan Zang around 1400 BCE and I-Qing around 1350 BCE. They came to see places related to the Buddha's life and famous monasteries.

The trade routes were challenging, the land routes were dangerous due to the hilly terrain, the roads were not always smooth, and stormy weather may also cause problems. Xuan Xang lost more than fifty Indian manuscripts when his canoe crashed while crossing the Indus. As a result, long-distance ocean excursions necessitated the use of robust ships. They relied on monsoon winds for navigation and propulsion on occasion. Traders decided to sell during the southwest monsoon to reach the subcontinent's western shore from east Africa or Arabia. Bandits and pirates assaulted these trade routes to steal the delivered precious items.

Importance of Global Trade

Despite these limitations, commerce has long been an essential aspect of global economies. Many kingdoms prospered as a result of trade. It is simple to conduct business with other nations or continents because the southern area of the Indian subcontinent has direct access to the coastlines. For Indians, these business ventures were frequently highly profitable. It was necessary for the rise of three influential kingdoms in southern India. The Cheras, Cholas, and Panday kingdoms. They are referred to as Muvendar in the Sangam poetry, Tamil for three rulers or chiefs of three governing lineages who rose to prominence in south India around 2300 years ago.

These three kingdoms dominated the river valleys in addition to the coastal regions. The Kaveri River valley is the most prolific of all the river valleys. The most powerful were chiefs and kings who controlled river valleys.

The Silk Route

Silk production is a time-consuming procedure. Silk is removed from a silkworm's cocoon, spun into thread, and then sewed into the fabric. Around 7000 years ago, China was the first to develop silk-producing methods. While the secrets of silk production were kept hidden for millennia, Chinese monarchs gave silk to the rulers of Iran and West Asia regularly, and the knowledge of silk went further west. Silk was carried by some Chinese travellers who travelled to remote areas on foot, horses, or camels. The silk path was named the silk route.

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Because of its rich, glossy hues and smooth texture, silk was a highly prized fabric. Affluent Romans began to favour the usage of silk a few thousand years ago. It was exceedingly costly because it had to be returned from China in complex ways. In exchange for allowing merchants to pass through, the residents of the path frequently requested payment. Several kings attempted to take control of a large section of theroad. This was the case due to the possibility of profiting from taxes, tributes, and presents delivered by traders along the route. In exchange, they usually guarded trade routes across their kingdoms against bandit raids.

The Kushanas were the most well-known silk route rulers. A branch of the silk route connected Central Asia to the seaports at the mouth of the Indus River, from where it was exported to the Roman Empire during their reign. The Kushanas were exposed to innovative thoughts and aesthetic inspirations by interacting with merchants from various cultures.

FAQs

Q1. What did India trade with Rome?

Ans. 2000 years ago, South India was known for its gold, rare stones, and pepper. Because of its high value, black pepper was known as "black gold" throughout the Roman Empire. If they chose the land route, many of these commodities would be delivered to Rome by ships or caravans.

Q2. What was the role of China in trading?

Ans. Around 1600 BCE, Fa Xian, Xuan Zang, and I-Qing arrived, followed by Xuan Zang around 1400 BCE and I-Qing around 1350 BCE. They came to see places related to the Buddha's life and famous monasteries. The trade routes were challenging, the land routes were dangerous due to the hilly terrain, the roads were not always smooth, and stormy weather may also cause problems.

Xuan Xang lost more than fifty Indian manuscripts when his canoe crashed while crossing the Indus.

Q3. How did the silk route come into existence?

Ans. China was the first to develop silk-producing methods around 7000 years ago. While the secrets of silk production were kept secret for millennia, Chinese monarchs regularly gave silk to Iran and West Asia rulers, and silk knowledge spread further west.

Some Chinese travellers who travelled to remote areas on foot, horses, or camels carried silk. The silk route was given that name.

Q4. Discuss the importance of Kushanans.

Ans. The most well-known silk route rulers were the Kushanas. A branch of the Silk Road linked Central Asia to seaports at the mouth of the Indus River, from which it was exported to the Roman Empire during their reign. Interacting with merchants from various cultures exposed the Kushanas to innovative ideas and aesthetic inspirations.

raja
Updated on 13-Oct-2022 11:19:47

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