Interaction-Oriented Architecture

The primary objective of interaction-oriented architecture is to separate the interaction of user from data abstraction and business data processing. The interaction-oriented software architecture decomposes the system into three major partitions −

Interaction-oriented architecture has two major styles − Model-View-Controller (MVC) and Presentation-Abstraction-Control (PAC). Both MVC and PAC propose three components decomposition and are used for interactive applications such as web applications with multiple talks and user interactions. They are different in their flow of control and organization. PAC is an agent-based hierarchical architecture but MVC does not have a clear hierarchical structure.

Model-View-Controller (MVC)

MVC decomposes a given software application into three interconnected parts that help in separating the internal representations of information from the information presented to or accepted from the user.

Module Function
Model Encapsulation the underlying data and business logic
Controller Respond to user action and direct the application flow
View Formats and present the data from model to user.


Model is a central component of MVC that directly manages the data, logic, and constraints of an application. It consists of data components, which maintain the raw application data and application logic for interface.


View can be used to represent any output of information in graphical form such as diagram or chart. It consists of presentation components which provide the visual representations of data


A controller accepts an input and converts it to commands for the model or view. It consists of input processing components which handle input from the user by modifying the model.

MVC Component


It is a simple version of MVC architecture where the system is divided into two sub-systems −

MVC-I Architecture

The model module notifies controller-view module of any data changes so that any graphics data display will be changed accordingly. The controller also takes appropriate action upon the changes.

MVC-I Architecture

The connection between controller-view and model can be designed in a pattern (as shown in the above picture) of subscribe-notify whereby the controller-view subscribes to model and model notifies controller-view of any changes.


MVC–II is an enhancement of MVC-I architecture in which the view module and the controller module are separate. The model module plays an active role as in MVC-I by providing all the core functionality and data supported by database.

The view module presents data while controller module accepts input request, validates input data, initiates the model, the view, their connection, and also dispatches the task.

MVC-II Architecture

MVC-II Architecture

MVC Applications

MVC applications are effective for interactive applications where multiple views are needed for a single data model and easy to plug-in a new or change interface view.

MVC applications are suitable for applications where there are clear divisions between the modules so that different professionals can be assigned to work on different aspects of such applications concurrently.



Presentation-Abstraction-Control (PAC)

In PAC, the system is arranged into a hierarchy of many cooperating agents (triads). It was developed from MVC to support the application requirement of multiple agents in addition to interactive requirements.

Each agent has three components −

The PAC architecture is similar to MVC, in the sense that presentation module is like view module of MVC. The abstraction module looks like model module of MVC and the control module is like the controller module of MVC, but they differ in their flow of control and organization.

There are no direct connections between abstraction component and presentation component in each agent. The control component in each agent is in charge of communications with other agents.

The following figure shows a block diagram for a single agent in PAC design.

PAC Design

PAC with Multiple Agents

In PACs consisting of multiple agents, the top-level agent provides core data and business logics. The bottom level agents define detailed specific data and presentations. The intermediate level or middle level agent acts as coordinator of low-level agents.

The following figure shows the Multiple Agents that take part in PAC.

Multiple Agent in PAC