# Scala - Sets

Scala Set is a collection of pairwise different elements of the same type. In other words, a Set is a collection that contains no duplicate elements. There are two kinds of Sets, the **immutable** and the **mutable**. The difference between mutable and immutable objects is that when an object is immutable, the object itself can't be changed.

By default, Scala uses the immutable Set. If you want to use the mutable Set, you'll have to import **scala.collection.mutable.Set** class explicitly. If you want to use both mutable and immutable sets in the same collection, then you can continue to refer to the immutable Set as **Set** but you can refer to the mutable Set as **mutable.Set**.

Here is how you can declare immutable Sets −

### Syntax

// Empty set of integer type var s : Set[Int] = Set() // Set of integer type var s : Set[Int] = Set(1,3,5,7) or var s = Set(1,3,5,7)

While defining an empty set, the type annotation is necessary as the system needs to assign a concrete type to variable.

## Basic Operations on set

All operations on sets can be expressed in terms of the following three methods −

Sr.No | Methods & Description |
---|---|

1 |
This method returns the first element of a set. |

2 |
This method returns a set consisting of all elements except the first. |

3 |
This method returns true if the set is empty otherwise false. |

Try the following example showing usage of the basic operational methods −

### Example

object Demo { def main(args: Array[String]) { val fruit = Set("apples", "oranges", "pears") val nums: Set[Int] = Set() println( "Head of fruit : " + fruit.head ) println( "Tail of fruit : " + fruit.tail ) println( "Check if fruit is empty : " + fruit.isEmpty ) println( "Check if nums is empty : " + nums.isEmpty ) } }

Save the above program in **Demo.scala**. The following commands are used to compile and execute this program.

### Command

\>scalac Demo.scala \>scala Demo

### Output

Head of fruit : apples Tail of fruit : Set(oranges, pears) Check if fruit is empty : false Check if nums is empty : true

## Concatenating Sets

You can use either **++** operator or **Set.++()** method to concatenate two or more sets, but while adding sets it will remove duplicate elements.

The Following is the example to concatenate two sets.

### Example

object Demo { def main(args: Array[String]) { val fruit1 = Set("apples", "oranges", "pears") val fruit2 = Set("mangoes", "banana") // use two or more sets with ++ as operator var fruit = fruit1 ++ fruit2 println( "fruit1 ++ fruit2 : " + fruit ) // use two sets with ++ as method fruit = fruit1.++(fruit2) println( "fruit1.++(fruit2) : " + fruit ) } }

Save the above program in **Demo.scala**. The following commands are used to compile and execute this program.

### Command

\>scalac Demo.scala \>scala Demo

### Output

fruit1 ++ fruit2 : Set(banana, apples, mangoes, pears, oranges) fruit1.++(fruit2) : Set(banana, apples, mangoes, pears, oranges)

## Find Max, Min Elements in a Set

You can use **Set.min** method to find out the minimum and **Set.max** method to find out the maximum of the elements available in a set. Following is the example to show the program.

### Example

object Demo { def main(args: Array[String]) { val num = Set(5,6,9,20,30,45) // find min and max of the elements println( "Min element in Set(5,6,9,20,30,45) : " + num.min ) println( "Max element in Set(5,6,9,20,30,45) : " + num.max ) } }

Save the above program in **Demo.scala**. The following commands are used to compile and execute this program.

### Command

\>scalac Demo.scala \>scala Demo

### Output

Min element in Set(5,6,9,20,30,45) : 5 Max element in Set(5,6,9,20,30,45) : 45

## Find Common Values Insets

You can use either **Set.&** method or **Set.intersect** method to find out the common values between two sets. Try the following example to show the usage.

### Example

object Demo { def main(args: Array[String]) { val num1 = Set(5,6,9,20,30,45) val num2 = Set(50,60,9,20,35,55) // find common elements between two sets println( "num1.&(num2) : " + num1.&(num2) ) println( "num1.intersect(num2) : " + num1.intersect(num2) ) } }

**Demo.scala**. The following commands are used to compile and execute this program.

### Command

\>scalac Demo.scala \>scala Demo

### Output

num1.&(num2) : Set(20, 9) num1.intersect(num2) : Set(20, 9)

## Scala Set methods

Following are the important methods which you can use while playing with Sets. For a complete list of methods available, please check official documentation of Scala.

Sr.No | Methods with Description |
---|---|

1 |
Creates a new set with an additional element, unless the element is already present. |

2 |
Creates a new set with a given element removed from this set. |

3 |
Returns true if elem is contained in this set, false otherwise. |

4 |
Returns a new set consisting of all elements that are both in this set and in the given set. |

5 |
Returns the difference of this set and another set. |

6 |
Creates a new immutable set with additional elements from the passed sets |

7 |
Concatenates this immutable set with the elements of another collection to this immutable set. |

8 |
Returns a new immutable set that contains all elements of the current immutable set except one less occurrence of each of the given argument elements. |

9 |
Appends all elements of this immutable set to a string builder. |

10 |
Appends all elements of this immutable set to a string builder using a separator string. |

11 |
Tests if some element is contained in this set. |

12 |
Counts the number of elements in the immutable set which satisfy a predicate. |

13 |
Copies elements of this immutable set to an array. |

14 |
Computes the difference of this set and another set. |

15 |
Returns all elements except first n ones. |

16 |
Returns all elements except last n ones. |

17 |
Drops longest prefix of elements that satisfy a predicate. |

18 |
The equals method for arbitrary sequences. Compares this sequence to some other object. |

19 |
Tests whether a predicate holds for some of the elements of this immutable set. |

20 |
Returns all elements of this immutable set which satisfy a predicate. |

21 |
Finds the first element of the immutable set satisfying a predicate, if any. |

22 |
Tests whether a predicate holds for all elements of this immutable set. |

23 |
Applies a function f to all elements of this immutable set. |

24 |
Returns the first element of this immutable set. |

25 |
Returns all elements except the last. |

26 |
Computes the intersection between this set and another set. |

27 |
Tests if this set is empty. |

28 |
Creates a new iterator over all elements contained in the iterable object. |

29 |
Returns the last element. |

30 |
Builds a new collection by applying a function to all elements of this immutable set. |

31 |
Finds the largest element. |

32 |
Finds the smallest element. |

33 |
Displays all elements of this immutable set in a string. |

34 |
Displays all elements of this immutable set in a string using a separator string. |

35 |
Returns the product of all elements of this immutable set with respect to the * operator in num. |

36 |
Returns the number of elements in this immutable set. |

37 |
Returns a pair of immutable sets consisting of the first n elements of this immutable set, and the other elements. |

38 |
Returns true if this set is a subset of that, i.e. if every element of this set is also an element of that. |

39 |
Returns the sum of all elements of this immutable set with respect to the + operator in num. |

40 |
Returns a immutable set consisting of all elements of this immutable set except the first one. |

41 |
Returns first n elements. |

42 |
Returns last n elements. |

43 |
Returns an array containing all elements of this immutable set. |

44 |
Returns a buffer containing all elements of this immutable set. |

45 |
Returns a list containing all elements of this immutable set. |

46 |
Converts this immutable set to a map |

47 |
Returns a seq containing all elements of this immutable set. |

48 |
Returns a String representation of the object. |