Block Cipher

The basic scheme of a block cipher is depicted as follows −

Block Cipher

A block cipher takes a block of plaintext bits and generates a block of ciphertext bits, generally of same size. The size of block is fixed in the given scheme. The choice of block size does not directly affect to the strength of encryption scheme. The strength of cipher depends up on the key length.

Block Size

Though any size of block is acceptable, following aspects are borne in mind while selecting a size of a block.

Padding in Block Cipher

Block ciphers process blocks of fixed sizes (say 64 bits). The length of plaintexts is mostly not a multiple of the block size. For example, a 150-bit plaintext provides two blocks of 64 bits each with third block of balance 22 bits. The last block of bits needs to be padded up with redundant information so that the length of the final block equal to block size of the scheme. In our example, the remaining 22 bits need to have additional 42 redundant bits added to provide a complete block. The process of adding bits to the last block is referred to as padding.

Too much padding makes the system inefficient. Also, padding may render the system insecure at times, if the padding is done with same bits always.

Block Cipher Schemes

There is a vast number of block ciphers schemes that are in use. Many of them are publically known. Most popular and prominent block ciphers are listed below.

In the next sections, we will first discuss the model of block cipher followed by DES and AES, two of the most influential modern block ciphers.