- Chemistry Notes for UPSC IAS Prelims (Part II)
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- Chemistry - Maganese
- Chemistry - Iron
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Chemistry - Maganese
Manganese is a chemical element that usually found in combination with the iron.
The symbol of manganese is ‘Mn’ and atomic number is ’25.’
Manganese is a metal very important for the industrial use.
In 1774, Johan Gottlieb Gahn, first time isolated an impure sample of manganese metal in 1774.
Features of Manganese
Following are the major features and characteristics of manganese −
Similar to iron, manganese is silvery-gray metal.
Manganese can be oxidized easily, but very difficult to fuse it, as it is very hard and brittle.
In air, manganese gets tarnished slowly (oxidization).
Manganese is an element, which is part of the iron group.
Occurrence of Manganese
Manganese is the 12th most abundant element of the earth’s crust.
Soil usually contains about 7–9000 ppm of manganese with an average of 440 ppm.
Seawater has only about 10 ppm manganese; whereas, the atmosphere contains about 0.01 µg/m3.
Pyrolusite (MnO2) is the most important ore of manganese.
Compounds of Manganese
Following are the major compounds of manganese −
Manganese (II) oxide - MnO
Manganese (I) oxide - Mn2O3
Manganese dioxide - MnO2
Manganese chloride - MnCl2
Potassium permanganate - KMnO4
Manganese (II) sulfate - MnSO4
Manganese (II) carbonate - MnCO3
Manganese (II) sulfide - MnS
Manganese (II) nitrate - Mn(NO3)2
Manganese (II) bromide - MnBr2
Manganese heptoxide - Mn2O7
Dimanganese decacarbonyl - C10O10Mn2
Manganese (II) iodide - MnI2
Manganese (II) fluoride - MnF2
Uses of Manganese
Following are the major uses of manganese −
Manganese is one of the most essential constituents of steel production.
Manganese phosphating is commonly used for the rust and corrosion prevention on steel.
In biology, manganese(II) ions act as cofactors for the large variety of enzymes.
Manganese is also important in the oxygen-evolving phenomenon of photosynthetic plants.
Manganese dioxide is also used in the manufacture of oxygen and chlorine and in drying black paints.