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Network Addresses - IP Addreses

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Before we proceed with actual stuff, lets understand a but about the Network Addresses - The IP Address.

The IP host address, or more commonly just IP address, is used to identify hosts connected to the Internet. IP stands for Internet Protocol and refers to the Internet Layer of the overall network architecture of the Internet.

An IP address is a 32-bit quantity interpreted as 4 8-bit numbers or octets. Each IP address uniquely identifies the participating user network, the host on the network, and the class of the user network.

An IP address is usually written in a dotted-decimal notation of the form N1.N2.N3.N4, where each Ni is a decimal number between 0 and 255 decimal (00 through FF hexadecimal).

Address Classes:

IP addresses are managed and created by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). There are 5 different address classes. You can determine which class any IP address is in by examining the first 4 bits of the IP address.

Addresses beginning with 01111111, or 127 decimal, are reserved for loopback and for internal testing on a local machine; [ You can test this: you should always be able to ping 127.0.0.1, which points to yourself ] Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting; Class E addresses are reserved for future use. They should not be used for host addresses.

Example:

ClassLeftmost bitsStart addressFinish address
A0xxx0.0.0.0127.255.255.255
B10xx128.0.0.0191.255.255.255
C110x192.0.0.0223.255.255.255
D1110224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255
E1111240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

Subnetting:

Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons, including organization, use of different physical media (such as Ethernet, FDDI, WAN, etc.), preservation of address space, and security. The most common reason is to control network traffic.

The basic idea in subnetworking (a common word also used is subnetting) is to partition the host identifier portion of the IP address into two parts:

  1. A subnet address within the network address itself; and
  2. A host address on the subnet.

For example, a common Class B address format is N1.N2.S.H, where N1.N2 identifies the Class B network, the 8-bit S field identifies the subnet, and the 8-bit H field identifies the host on the subnet.

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