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ln - Unix, Linux Command

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ln - make links between files


ln [OPTION]... [-T] TARGET LINK_NAME (1st form)
ln [OPTION]... TARGET (2nd form)
ln [OPTION]... TARGET... DIRECTORY (3rd form)
ln [OPTION]... -t DIRECTORY TARGET... (4th form)


In the 1st form, create a link to TARGET with the name LINK_NAME. In the 2nd form, create a link to TARGET in the current directory. In the 3rd and 4th forms, create links to each TARGET in DIRECTORY. Create hard links by default, symbolic links with --symbolic. When creating hard links, each TARGET must exist.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

  make a backup of each existing destination file
-b like --backup but does not accept an argument
-d, -F, --directory
  allow the superuser to attempt to hard link directories (note: will probably fail due to system restrictions, even for the superuser)
-f, --force
  remove existing destination files
-n, --no-dereference
  treat destination that is a symlink to a directory as if it were a normal file
-i, --interactive
  prompt whether to remove destinations
-s, --symbolic
  make symbolic links instead of hard links
-S, --suffix=SUFFIX
  override the usual backup suffix
-t, --target-directory=DIRECTORY
  specify the DIRECTORY in which to create the links
-T, --no-target-directory
  treat LINK_NAME as a normal file
-v, --verbose
  print name of each file before linking
--help display this help and exit
  output version information and exit
The backup suffix is ‘~’, unless set with --suffix or SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX. The version control method may be selected via the --backup option or through the VERSION_CONTROL environment variable. Here are the values:
none, off
  never make backups (even if --backup is given)
numbered, t
  make numbered backups
existing, nil
  numbered if numbered backups exist, simple otherwise
simple, never
  always make simple backups


Written by Mike Parker and David MacKenzie.


Report bugs to <>.


Copyright © 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


ln is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and ln programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info ln
should give you access to the complete manual.
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