Copyright ©

du - Unix, Linux Command

previous next



du - estimate file space usage


du [OPTION]... [FILE]...
du [OPTION]... --files0-from=F


Summarize disk usage of each FILE, recursively for directories.

Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

-a, --all write counts for all files, not just directories
  print apparent sizes, rather than disk usage; although the apparent size is usually smaller, it may be larger due to holes in (‘sparse’) files, internal fragmentation, indirect blocks, and the like
-B, --block-size=SIZE use SIZE-byte blocks
-b, --bytes
  equivalent to ‘--apparent-size --block-size=1
-c, --total
  produce a grand total
-D, --dereference-args
  dereference FILEs that are symbolic links
  summarize disk usage of the NUL-terminated file names specified in file F
-H like --si, but also evokes a warning; will soon change to be equivalent to --dereference-args (-D)
-h, --human-readable
  print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)
--si like -h, but use powers of 1000 not 1024
-k like --block-size=1K
-l, --count-links
  count sizes many times if hard linked
-m like --block-size=1M
-L, --dereference
  dereference all symbolic links
-P, --no-dereference
  don’t follow any symbolic links (this is the default)
-0, --null end each output line with 0 byte rather than newline
-S, --separate-dirs
  do not include size of subdirectories
-s, --summarize
  display only a total for each argument
-x, --one-file-system
  skip directories on different file systems
-X FILE, --exclude-from=FILE
  Exclude files that match any pattern in FILE.
--exclude=PATTERN Exclude files that match PATTERN.
  print the total for a directory (or file, with --all) only if it is N or fewer levels below the command line argument; --max-depth=0 is the same as --summarize
--time show time of the last modification of any file in the directory, or any of its subdirectories
  show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status
--time-style=STYLE show times using style STYLE:
  full-iso, long-iso, iso, +FORMAT FORMAT is interpreted like ‘date’
--help display this help and exit
  output version information and exit
SIZE may be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: kB 1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.


PATTERN is a shell pattern (not a regular expression). The pattern ? matches any one character, whereas * matches any string (composed of zero, one or multiple characters). For example, *.o will match any files whose names end in .o. Therefore, the command
du --exclude=’*.o’
will skip all files and subdirectories ending in .o (including the file .o itself).


Written by Torbjorn Granlund, David MacKenzie, Paul Eggert, and Jim Meyering.


Report bugs to <>.


Copyright © 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software. You may redistribute copies of it under the terms of the GNU General Public License <>. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.


du is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and du programs are properly installed at your site, the command
info du
should give you access to the complete manual.
previous next

Copyright ©