SQL - NOT NULL Constraint

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By default, a column can hold NULL values. If you do not want a column to have a NULL value, then you need to define such constraint on this column specifying that NULL is now not allowed for that column.

A NULL is not the same as no data, rather, it represents unknown data.

Example:

For example, the following SQL creates a new table called CUSTOMERS and adds five columns, three of which, ID and NAME and AGE, specify not to accept NULLs:

CREATE TABLE CUSTOMERS(
       ID   INT              NOT NULL,
       NAME VARCHAR (20)     NOT NULL,
       AGE  INT              NOT NULL,
       ADDRESS  CHAR (25) ,
       SALARY   DECIMAL (18, 2),       
       PRIMARY KEY (ID)
);

If CUSTOMERS table has already been created, then to add a NOT NULL constraint to SALARY column in Oracle and MySQL, you would write a statement similar to the following:

ALTER TABLE CUSTOMERS
   MODIFY SALARY  DECIMAL (18, 2) NOT NULL;


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