SQL - LEFT JOINS

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The SQL LEFT JOIN returns all rows from the left table, even if there are no matches in the right table. This means that if the ON clause matches 0 (zero) records in right table, the join will still return a row in the result, but with NULL in each column from right table.

This means that a left join returns all the values from the left table, plus matched values from the right table or NULL in case of no matching join predicate.

Syntax:

The basic syntax of LEFT JOIN is as follows:

SELECT table1.column1, table2.column2...
FROM table1
LEFT JOIN table2
ON table1.common_field = table2.common_field;

Here given condition could be any given expression based on your requirement.

Example:

Consider the following two tables, (a) CUSTOMERS table is as follows:

+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
| ID | NAME     | AGE | ADDRESS   | SALARY   |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+
|  1 | Ramesh   |  32 | Ahmedabad |  2000.00 |
|  2 | Khilan   |  25 | Delhi     |  1500.00 |
|  3 | kaushik  |  23 | Kota      |  2000.00 |
|  4 | Chaitali |  25 | Mumbai    |  6500.00 |
|  5 | Hardik   |  27 | Bhopal    |  8500.00 |
|  6 | Komal    |  22 | MP        |  4500.00 |
|  7 | Muffy    |  24 | Indore    | 10000.00 |
+----+----------+-----+-----------+----------+

(b) Another table is ORDERS as follows:

+-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+
| OID | DATE                | CUSTOMER_ID | AMOUNT |
+-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+
| 102 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |           3 |   3000 |
| 100 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |           3 |   1500 |
| 101 | 2009-11-20 00:00:00 |           2 |   1560 |
| 103 | 2008-05-20 00:00:00 |           4 |   2060 |
+-----+---------------------+-------------+--------+

Now, let us join these two tables using LEFT JOIN as follows:

SQL> SELECT  ID, NAME, AMOUNT, DATE
     FROM CUSTOMERS
     LEFT JOIN ORDERS
     ON CUSTOMERS.ID = ORDERS.CUSTOMER_ID;

This would produce the following result:

+----+----------+--------+---------------------+
| ID | NAME     | AMOUNT | DATE                |
+----+----------+--------+---------------------+
|  1 | Ramesh   |   NULL | NULL                |
|  2 | Khilan   |   1560 | 2009-11-20 00:00:00 |
|  3 | kaushik  |   3000 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |
|  3 | kaushik  |   1500 | 2009-10-08 00:00:00 |
|  4 | Chaitali |   2060 | 2008-05-20 00:00:00 |
|  5 | Hardik   |   NULL | NULL                |
|  6 | Komal    |   NULL | NULL                |
|  7 | Muffy    |   NULL | NULL                |
+----+----------+--------+---------------------+


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