Makefile - Macros
make program allows you to use macros, which are similar to variables. Macros are defined in a Makefile as = pairs. For example,
MACROS = -me PSROFF = groff -Tps DITROFF = groff -Tdvi CFLAGS = -O -systype bsd43 LIBS = "-lncurses -lm -lsdl" MYFACE = ":*)"
Before issuing any command in a target rule set, there are certain special macros predefined −
$@ is the name of the file to be made.
$? is the names of the changed dependents.
For example, we could use a rule as follows
hello: main.cpp hello.cpp factorial.cpp $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $? $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ Alternatively − hello: main.cpp hello.cpp factorial.cpp $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $@.cpp $(LDFLAGS) -o $@
In this example, $@ represents hello and $? or $@.cpp picks up all the changed source files.
There are two more special macros used in the implicit rules. They are −
$< the name of the related file that caused the action.
$* the prefix shared by target and dependent files.
Common implicit rule is for the construction of .o (object) files out of .cpp (source files).
.o.cpp: $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c $< Alternatively − .o.cpp: $(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c $*.c
There are various default macros. You can see them by (typing "make -p" to print out the defaults). Most are pretty obvious from the rules in which they are used.
These predefined variables, i.e., macros used in implicit rules fall into two classes −
Macros that are names of programs (such as CC)
Macros that contain arguments of the programs (such as CFLAGS).
Here is a table of some of the common variables used as names of programs in built-in rules of makefiles.
|AR||Archive-maintaining program; default is `ar'.|
|AS||Program for compiling assembly files; default is `as'.|
|CC||Program for compiling C programs; default is `cc'.|
|CO||Program for checking out files from RCS; default is `co'.|
|CXX||Program for compiling C++ programs; default is `g++'.|
|CPP||Program for running the C preprocessor, with results to standard output; default is `$(CC) -E'.|
|FC||Program for compiling or preprocessing Fortran and Ratfor programs; default is `f77'.|
|GET||Program for extracting a file from SCCS; default is `get'.|
|LEX||Program to use to turn Lex grammars into source code; default is `lex'.|
|YACC||Program to use to turn Yacc grammars into source code; default is `yacc'.|
|LINT||Program to use to run lint on source code; default is `lint'.|
|M2C||Program to use to compile Modula-2 source code; default is `m2c'.|
|PC||Program for compiling Pascal programs; default is `pc'.|
|MAKEINFO||Program to convert a Texinfo source file into an Info file; default is `makeinfo'.|
|TEX||Program to make TeX dvi files from TeX source; default is `tex'.|
|TEXI2DVI||Program to make TeX dvi files from Texinfo source; default is `texi2dvi'.|
|WEAVE||Program to translate Web into TeX; default is `weave'.|
|CWEAVE||Program to translate C Web into TeX; default is `cweave'.|
|TANGLE||Program to translate Web into Pascal; default is `tangle'.|
|CTANGLE||Program to translate C Web into C; default is `ctangle'.|
|RM||Command to remove a file; default is `rm -f'.|
Here is a table of variables whose values are additional arguments for the programs above. The default values for all of these is the empty string, unless otherwise noted.
|ARFLAGS||Flags to give the archive-maintaining program; default is `rv'.|
|ASFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the assembler when explicitly invoked on a `.s' or `.S' file.|
|CFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the C compiler.|
|CXXFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the C compiler.|
|COFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the RCS co program.|
|CPPFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the C preprocessor and programs, which use it (such as C and Fortran compilers).|
|FFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the Fortran compiler.|
|GFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the SCCS get program.|
|LDFLAGS||Extra flags to give to compilers when they are supposed to invoke the linker, `ld'.|
|LFLAGS||Extra flags to give to Lex.|
|YFLAGS||Extra flags to give to Yacc.|
|PFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the Pascal compiler.|
|RFLAGS||Extra flags to give to the Fortran compiler for Ratfor programs.|
|LINTFLAGS||Extra flags to give to lint.|
NOTE− You can cancel all variables used by implicit rules with the '-R' or '--no-builtin-variables' option.
You can also define macros at the command line as shown below −
make CPP = /home/courses/cop4530/spring02